How to format your references using the Forensic Science International: Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science International: Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S.A. Brown, Circadian rhythms. A new histone code for clocks?, Science. 333 (2011) 1833–1834.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.H. Kolodrubetz, J.R. Petta, Applied physics. Coherent holes in a semiconductor quantum dot, Science. 325 (2009) 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Bosch, M. van de Pol, J. Philp, Policy: Define biomass sustainability, Nature. 523 (2015) 526–527.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.S. Trombetta, M. Ebersold, W. Garrett, M. Pypaert, I. Mellman, Activation of lysosomal function during dendritic cell maturation, Science. 299 (2003) 1400–1403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Robertson, G.A. Vignaux, C.E.H. Berger, Interpreting Evidence, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
E. Rossi, Assessing Relative Valuation in Equity Markets: Bridging Research and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
F. Fend, L. Quintanilla-Martínez, The Application of Molecular Techniques on Bone Marrow Trephines, in: D. Anagnostou, E. Matutes (Eds.), Bone Marrow Lymphoid Infiltrates: Diagnosis and Clinical Impact, Springer, London, 2012: pp. 67–81.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science International: Genetics.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Sci-Fi Style Prosthetic Arm Wins FDA Approval, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Demand for the Social Security Administration’s Electronic Data Exchanges Is Growing and Presents Future Challenges, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Fay, Aposematic Variation and the Evolution of Warning Coloration in Mammals, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Wilson, Before Prison, Producer Recalls Fateful Night, New York Times. (2017) A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science International: Genetics
AbbreviationForensic Sci. Int. Genet.
ISSN (print)1872-4973
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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