How to format your references using the Forensic Science International: Synergy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science International: Synergy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Pither, Comment on “Dispersal limitations matter for microbial morphospecies,” Science. 316 (2007) 1124; author reply 1124.
A journal article with 2 authors
C.P. Conrad, C. Lithgow-Bertelloni, How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics, Science. 298 (2002) 207–209.
A journal article with 3 authors
L. Sun, J. Wang, E. Bonaccurso, Conductivity of individual particles measured by a microscopic four-point-probe method, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1991.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Suzuki, Y. Sakamoto, N. Tanaka, H. Okada, Y. Morikawa, W. Ogasawara, Identification of the catalytic triad of family S46 exopeptidases, closely related to clan PA endopeptidases, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4292.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Nölte, ICP Emissionsspektrometrie für Praktiker, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
R. Pal, An Introduction to Phytoplanktons: Diversity and Ecology, Springer India, New Delhi, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
N. Voicu, Source Forms and Their Variational Completions, in: D.V. Zenkov (Ed.), The Inverse Problem of the Calculus of Variations: Local and Global Theory, Atlantis Press, Paris, 2015: pp. 171–214.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science International: Synergy.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, African Countries Square Up For Battle Over Future Of Ivory Trade Ban, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: A Model to Help Managers Decrease Acquisition Risks, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Gleason, Nanosphere lithography applied to magnetic thin films, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Eddy, Merkel Calls Violence Stemming From Rally ‘Racist’ and ‘Horrifying,’ New York Times. (2017) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science International: Synergy
ISSN (print)2589-871X

Other styles