How to format your references using the Forensic Science International: Genetics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forensic Science International: Genetics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.-C. Marine, Journal club. A cancer geneticist looks at the link between small RNA molecules and cancer, Nature. 464 (2010) 1249.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Vollan, E. Ostrom, Social science. Cooperation and the commons, Science. 330 (2010) 923–924.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Saito, K. Shinzawa, Y. Tsujimoto, Synchronized necrotic death of attached hepatocytes mediated via gap junctions, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5169.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.-R. Lee, K. Lee, J. Cho, Y.-H. Choi, C.-Y. You, M.-H. Jung, F. Bonell, Y. Shiota, S. Miwa, Y. Suzuki, Spin-orbit torque in a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd/MgO system, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.A. Grimes, Hacking the Hacker, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, 2017.
An edited book
V. Matranga, ed., Echinodermata, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
X. Fu, C. Zhao, S. Zhang, X. Wang, Modeling and Simulation of Electricity Markets under Different Environmental Policies, in: T. Xiao, L. Zhang, S. Ma (Eds.), System Simulation and Scientific Computing: International Conference, ICSC 2012, Shanghai, China, October 27-30, 2012. Proceedings, Part II, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 34–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forensic Science International: Genetics.

Blog post
R. Andrews, San Andreas Earthquakes May Be Triggered By The Pull Of The Sun And The Moon, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, James Webb Space Telescope: Project Facing Increased Schedule Risk with Significant Work Remaining, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.W. Anderson, Breaking journalism down: Work, authority, and networking local news, 1997–2009, Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, New Cure for Ailing Mets: Taking 2 Bases, New York Times. (2017) B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleForensic Science International: Genetics
AbbreviationForensic Sci. Int. Genet.
ISSN (print)1872-4973
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

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