How to format your references using the Foot & Ankle International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foot & Ankle International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler D. The fertility riddle. Nature. 2004;432(7013):38-39.
A journal article with 2 authors
O’Neill LAJ, Hardie DG. Metabolism of inflammation limited by AMPK and pseudo-starvation. Nature. 2013;493(7432):346-355.
A journal article with 3 authors
Swain MR, Vasisht G, Tinetti G. The presence of methane in the atmosphere of an extrasolar planet. Nature. 2008;452(7185):329-331.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thomas L, Hayashi M, Jiang X, Moriya R, Rettner C, Parkin SSP. Oscillatory dependence of current-driven magnetic domain wall motion on current pulse length. Nature. 2006;443(7108):197-200.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Holt J. The Ultimate Daily Show and Philosophy. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
An edited book
Dick AJ. Prison Vocational Education and Policy in the United States: A Critical Perspective on Evidence-Based Reform. (Rich W, Waters T, eds.). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hentschel C, Czinki A. Taming Complex Problems by Systematic Innovation. In: Chechurin L, ed. Research and Practice on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ): Linking Creativity, Engineering and Innovation. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:77-93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foot & Ankle International.

Blog post
Luntz S. Galactic Satellite Could Provide First Clean Dark Matter Signal. IFLScience. Published August 21, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Use of Computers by Firms Providing Architect-Engineer Services to Federal Agencies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arens JL. Power, Oppression, and Group Difference Interrogation: A Call to Social Justice Movement Organizations. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. On Road to Super Bowl, Sprinkle Some Eye of Newt. New York Times. January 17, 2010:SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 2,4.
This sentence cites four references 2,4,6,8.

About the journal

Full journal titleFoot & Ankle International
AbbreviationFoot Ankle Int.
ISSN (print)1071-1007
ISSN (online)1944-7876
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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