How to format your references using the Foot & Ankle International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Foot & Ankle International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nürnberg D. PALEOCLIMATE: Taking the Temperature of Past Ocean Surfaces. Science. 2000;289(5485):1698-1699.
A journal article with 2 authors
Koester HJ, Johnston D. Target cell-dependent normalization of transmitter release at neocortical synapses. Science. 2005;308(5723):863-866.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li X, Schuler MA, Berenbaum MR. Jasmonate and salicylate induce expression of herbivore cytochrome P450 genes. Nature. 2002;419(6908):712-715.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Larson BC, Yang W, Ice GE, Budai JD, Tischler JZ. Three-dimensional X-ray structural microscopy with submicrometre resolution. Nature. 2002;415(6874):887-890.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wilmshurst L. Clinical and Educational Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Mohanty P, Muneer T, Kolhe M, eds. Solar Photovoltaic System Applications: A Guidebook for Off-Grid Electrification. 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hernandez AM, Peterson AL. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Pain. In: Gatchel RJ, Schultz IZ, eds. Handbook of Occupational Health and Wellness. Springer US; 2012:63-85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Foot & Ankle International.

Blog post
Hale T. Here’s How To Beat The Queues At The Supermarket Checkout. IFLScience. Published September 9, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Commerce Could Save $24.6 Million by Modifying Computer Procurement Actions. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rivers M. Bridging the knowledge gap between the Baby Boomers and the multigenerations. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. Trump Claims Undue Credit On an Arsenal. New York Times. August 9, 2017:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 2.
This sentence cites two references 3,4.
This sentence cites four references 3,6–8.

About the journal

Full journal titleFoot & Ankle International
AbbreviationFoot Ankle Int.
ISSN (print)1071-1007
ISSN (online)1944-7876
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

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