How to format your references using the Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Laundré JW (2014) Ecology. How large predators manage the cost of hunting. Science 346:33–34
A journal article with 2 authors
Chameides WL, Bergin M (2002) Climate change. Soot takes center stage. Science 297:2214–2215
A journal article with 3 authors
Bragg AE, Cavanagh MC, Schwartz BJ (2008) Linear response breakdown in solvation dynamics induced by atomic electron-transfer reactions. Science 321:1817–1822
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cheng X, Su X, Chen X, et al (2014) Biological ingredient analysis of traditional Chinese medicine preparation based on high-throughput sequencing: the story for Liuwei Dihuang Wan. Sci Rep 4:5147

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misstear B, Banks D, Clark L (2006) Water Wells and Boreholes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Choi L, Paek Y, Cho S (2007) Advances in Computer Systems Architecture: 12th Asia-Pacific Conference, ACSAC 2007, Seoul, Korea, August 23-25, 2007. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Tubaro P, Casilli AA, Sarabi Y (2014) Three Approaches to Privacy: As Penetration, Regulation, and Negotiation. In: Casilli AA, Sarabi Y (eds) Against the Hypothesis of the End of Privacy: An Agent-Based Modelling Approach to Social Media. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 23–27

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Antisocial Behaviour – It’s All In The Brain. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) GSEs: Implications of Removing State and Local Tax Exemption. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carey SA (2013) Assessing the presence of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Raday S (2006) Diary of a Soldier’s Wife: Tie-Dye and Camo Don’t Mix. New York Times ST7

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Digestion: Research and Current Opinion
AbbreviationFood Dig.
ISSN (print)1869-1978
ISSN (online)1869-1986
ScopeFood Science

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