How to format your references using the Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe H (2000) European public remains sceptical. Nature 405:5
A journal article with 2 authors
Kershaw MH, Smyth MJ (2013) Immunology. Making macrophages eat cancer. Science 341:41–42
A journal article with 3 authors
Serabyn E, Mawet D, Burruss R (2010) An image of an exoplanet separated by two diffraction beamwidths from a star. Nature 464:1018–1020
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Utikal J, Polo JM, Stadtfeld M, et al (2009) Immortalization eliminates a roadblock during cellular reprogramming into iPS cells. Nature 460:1145–1148

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Perez A (2016) VoLTE and ViLTE. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Pólya G (2010) Notes on Introductory Combinatorics, 1st ed. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Tassios TP (2009) Seismic Protection of Monuments. In: Tankut AT (ed) Earthquakes and Tsunamis: Civil Engineering Disaster Mitigation Activities Implementing Millennium Development Goals. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 53–65

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Digestion: Research and Current Opinion.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2015) This Is What Your Brain Looks Like With Alzheimer’s Disease. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1987) Attack Warning: ADP and Communication Modernization Programs for Warning and Assessment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dorrance AM (2008) The Role of the Partial Tandem Duplication of MLL (MLL PTD) in Leukemogenesis. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Fear, Frustration and Fascination: Sharapova on Serena. New York Times B10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Digestion: Research and Current Opinion
AbbreviationFood Dig.
ISSN (print)1869-1978
ISSN (online)1869-1986
ScopeFood Science

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