How to format your references using the Food Chemistry: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Food Chemistry: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Couzin-Frankel, J. (2014). The elusive heart fix. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6194), 252–257.
A journal article with 2 authors
Göhlich, U. B., & Chiappe, L. M. (2006). A new carnivorous dinosaur from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen archipelago. Nature, 440(7082), 329–332.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexander, D. T. L., Crozier, P. A., & Anderson, J. R. (2008). Brown carbon spheres in East Asian outflow and their optical properties. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5890), 833–836.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Korn, T., Bettelli, E., Gao, W., Awasthi, A., Jäger, A., Strom, T. B., Oukka, M., & Kuchroo, V. K. (2007). IL-21 initiates an alternative pathway to induce proinflammatory T(H)17 cells. Nature, 448(7152), 484–487.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rao, K. R., Bojkovic, Z. S., & Milovanovic, D. A. (2005). Introduction to Multimedia Communications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ablin, R. J., & Mason, M. D. (Eds.). (2007). Metastasis of Prostate Cancer (Vol. 10). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Nowak, P. (2012). Competitiveness of EU Region and Sustainable Development Policies Measures in Logistics: Experiences of Emilia Romagna. In P. Golinska & M. Hajdul (Eds.), Sustainable Transport: New Trends and Business Practices (pp. 67–80). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Food Chemistry: X.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, July 1). Rice And Wheat Production Use More Water Than All Other Crops Put Together. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2010). Students With Disabilities: More Information and Guidance Could Improve Opportunities in Physical Education and Athletics (GAO-10-519). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, M. W. (2017). The Louisiana Teacher Assault Pay Statute: An Analysis of Court Decisions Interpreting the Statute and a Comparative Study of Teacher Assault Pay Statutes in Other States [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, March 31). On Coaching Go-Round, It’s Hop On, And Hold On. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Couzin-Frankel, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Couzin-Frankel, 2014; Göhlich & Chiappe, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Göhlich & Chiappe, 2006)
  • Three authors: (Alexander et al., 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Korn et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleFood Chemistry: X
ISSN (print)2590-1575

Other styles