How to format your references using the Fetal & Neonatal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fetal & Neonatal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Antonelli A. Biodiversity: Multiple origins of mountain life. Nature 2015;524:300–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ratnieks FLW, Wenseleers T. Evolution. Policing insect societies. Science 2005;307:54–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thompson JK, Peterson MR, Freeman RD. Single-neuron activity and tissue oxygenation in the cerebral cortex. Science 2003;299:1070–2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mendil J, Nieves P, Chubykalo-Fesenko O, et al. Resolving the role of femtosecond heated electrons in ultrafast spin dynamics. Sci Rep 2014;4:3980.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levene M. An Introduction to Search Engines and Web Navigation. Hoboken, NJ: : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010.
An edited book
Ehrentraut D, Meissner E, Bockowski M, editors. Technology of Gallium Nitride Crystal Growth. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang K, Wu S. Report on the Innovative Development of China’s Special Economic Zones. In: Tao Y, Yuan Y, eds. Annual Report on the Development of China’s Special Economic Zones (2016): Blue Book of China’s Special Economic Zones. Singapore: : Springer 2016. 83–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fetal & Neonatal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Surprising Source of Stem Cells Found In Teeth. IFLScience. 2014. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Commuter Airline Safety Would Be Enhanced With Better FAA Oversight. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mycroft D. Minorities in leadership and financial performance of their Fortune 500 companies. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. A Proposal for Drawing a Clearer Picture of Public Pension Finances. New York Times. 2011;:B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFetal & Neonatal
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
ISSN (print)1359-2998
ISSN (online)1468-2052
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles