How to format your references using the Fetal & Neonatal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fetal & Neonatal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schnabel J. Amyloid: little proteins, big clues. Nature 2011;475:S12-4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sunami A, Kurokawa K. Recession Watch: No time for nationalism. Nature 2009;457:960–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Widom CS, Czaja SJ, DuMont KA. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: real or detection bias? Science 2015;347:1480–5.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sumikura H, Kuramochi E, Taniyama H, et al. Ultrafast spontaneous emission of copper-doped silicon enhanced by an optical nanocavity. Sci Rep 2014;4:5040.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maudlin T. Quantum Non-Locality and Relativity. Oxford, UK: : Wiley-Blackwell 2011.
An edited book
Villalobos FJ, Fereres E, editors. Principles of Agronomy for Sustainable Agriculture. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Franco G, Manca V, Giagulli C, et al. DNA Recombination by XPCR. In: Carbone A, Pierce NA, eds. DNA Computing: 11th International Workshop on DNA Computing, DNA11, London, ON, Canada, June 6-9, 2005. Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2006. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fetal & Neonatal.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Track Near-Earth Objects On Asteroid Day 2016. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. U.S. Airports: Selected Airports’ Views on Federal Requirements. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowell ML. A Case Study into the Perception of World Language Study of All Stakeholders in a Suburban Midwest School District. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Williams J. Alcoholism in America. New York Times. 2017;:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFetal & Neonatal
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
ISSN (print)1359-2998
ISSN (online)1468-2052
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles