How to format your references using the Fetal & Neonatal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fetal & Neonatal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon D. The economic impact of Silicon Valley’s immigrant entrepreneurs. Nature 2000;405:598.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones W, Klin A. Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2-6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism. Nature 2013;504:427–31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naya Y, Yoshida M, Miyashita Y. Backward spreading of memory-retrieval signal in the primate temporal cortex. Science 2001;291:661–4.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Parfitt SA, Ashton NM, Lewis SG, et al. Early Pleistocene human occupation at the edge of the boreal zone in northwest Europe. Nature 2010;466:229–33.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Çayirci E, Rong C. Security in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2009.
An edited book
Broekmans MATM, editor. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM). Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Sartori J, Kumar R. Low-Overhead, High-Speed Multi-core Barrier Synchronization. In: Patt YN, Foglia P, Duesterwald E, et al., eds. High Performance Embedded Architectures and Compilers: 5th International Conference, HiPEAC 2010, Pisa, Italy, January 25-27, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2010. 18–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fetal & Neonatal.

Blog post
Andrews R. Burning All Our Fossil Fuels Will Scorch The Earth And Obliterate The Arctic. IFLScience. 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. State Department: Problems in the Diplomatic Courier System. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jha JS. [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Gem-Dicyanoepoxide and Electrophilic Reaction of Ethyl Atropate. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. From Educators, Caution on Parent Fund-Raisers and Foundations. New York Times. 2009;:LI5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFetal & Neonatal
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed.
ISSN (print)1359-2998
ISSN (online)1468-2052
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles