How to format your references using the Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sawyer RJ. The abdication of Pope Mary III...or Galileo’s revenge. Nature. 2000;406:23.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grant PR, Grant BR. Unpredictable evolution in a 30-year study of Darwin’s finches. Science. 2002;296:707–711.
A journal article with 3 authors
Guo F-Q, Okamoto M, Crawford NM. Identification of a plant nitric oxide synthase gene involved in hormonal signaling. Science. 2003;302:100–103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Yao L, Garmash O, Bianchi F, et al. Atmospheric new particle formation from sulfuric acid and amines in a Chinese megacity. Science. 2018;361:278–281.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ciobanu CV, Wang C-Z, Ho K-M. Atomic Structure Prediction of Nanostructures, Clusters and Surfaces. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Vickers L. Fire-Resistant Geopolymers: Role of Fibres and Fillers to Enhance Thermal Properties. van Riessen A, Rickard WDA, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Matsuura K. Productivity Space of Information Security in an Extension of the Gordon-Loeb’s InvestmentModel. In: Johnson ME, editor. Managing Information Risk and the Economics of Security. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 99–119.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior.

Blog post
Andrew E. Ancient Rhino Cousin Reorganizes Mammalian Family Tree. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Issues to Be Considered During Deliberations to Reauthorize the Federal-Aid Highway Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990. Report No.: T-RCED-90-50. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conti AI. Dirty hands, virtue ethics, and consequentialism [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B. Stoking Classic Rock Hunger With Concerts on the Coasts. New York Times. 2017 Mar 29;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior
ISSN (print)2164-1846
ISSN (online)2164-1862
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Behavioral Neuroscience

Other styles