How to format your references using the Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. World view: Calling science to account. Nature. 2010;463:875.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang B-L, Mackem S. Evolutionary developmental biology: Use it or lose it. Nature. 2014;511:34–35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qian L, Winfree E, Bruck J. Neural network computation with DNA strand displacement cascades. Nature. 2011;475:368–372.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang CP, Liu XJ, Ohnuma I, et al. Formation of immiscible alloy powders with egg-type microstructure. Science. 2002;297:990–993.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Auditing Process Safety Management Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1992.
An edited book
Motohashi N, editor. Bioactive Heterocycles VII: Flavonoids and Anthocyanins in Plants, and Latest Bioactive Heterocycles II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Janssen PAEM. Hamiltonian Description of Ocean Waves and Freak Waves. In: Onorato M, Resitori S, Baronio F, editors. Rogue and Shock Waves in Nonlinear Dispersive Media. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 117–157.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Why Hacking The Nervous System Could Be The Next Big Medical Treatment [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Management Agenda for the Presidential and Congressional Transition: Promote Transparency and Open Government to Enhance Civic Engagement and Foster Innovation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016. Report No.: D15091. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Winter JM. Investigating the biosynthesis of halogenated meroterpenoid natural products from marine actinomycetes [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Making It at 41. New York Times. 2017 Feb 3;D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior
ISSN (print)2164-1846
ISSN (online)2164-1862
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Behavioral Neuroscience

Other styles