How to format your references using the Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Meeks JC. Microbiology. Closing the cycle. Science. 2011;334:1508–1509.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bhalla N, Dernburg AF. A conserved checkpoint monitors meiotic chromosome synapsis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Science. 2005;310:1683–1686.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tucker WC, Weber T, Chapman ER. Reconstitution of Ca2+-regulated membrane fusion by synaptotagmin and SNAREs. Science. 2004;304:435–438.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Formisano V, Atreya S, Encrenaz T, et al. Detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars. Science. 2004;306:1758–1761.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kim DM. Introductory Quantum Mechanics for Applied Nanotechnology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2015.
An edited book
Leeuwen CJ van, Vermeire TG, editors. Risk Assessment of Chemicals: An Introduction. 2nd edition. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Köhler M, Moldt D, Rölke H, et al. Linking Micro and Macro Description of Scalable Social Systems Using Reference Nets. In: Fischer K, Florian M, Malsch T, editors. Socionics: Scalability of Complex Social Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005. p. 51–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior.

Blog post
Fang J. Scientists Reconstruct the Life of a Teenage Girl from the Contents of a 3,400-Year-Old Coffin [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Facilities: Condition of America’s Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995. Report No.: HEHS-95-61. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wizda LL. A case study of online peer coaching of consultant communication skill development [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Higgins A. In Measured Speech, Putin Calls for ‘Mutually Beneficial’ Ties With U.S. New York Times. 2016 Dec 1;A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFatigue: Biomedicine, Health & Behavior
ISSN (print)2164-1846
ISSN (online)2164-1862
ScopeMedicine (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Behavioral Neuroscience

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