How to format your references using the Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures (FFEMS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waychunas GA. Interfacial chemistry. Disrupting dissolving ions at surfaces with fluid flow. Science. 2014;344: 1094–1095.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapiro B, Hofreiter M. A paleogenomic perspective on evolution and gene function: new insights from ancient DNA. Science. 2014;343: 1236573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kah LC, Lyons TW, Frank TD. Low marine sulphate and protracted oxygenation of the Proterozoic biosphere. Nature. 2004;431: 834–838.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chia N-Y, Chan Y-S, Feng B, et al. A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals determinants of human embryonic stem cell identity. Nature. 2010;468: 316–320.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Energy Materials 2014. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Moller F. Modelling Computing Systems: Mathematics for Computer Science. (Struth G, ed.). London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Castro FA, Silva Santos CMP, Palma JMLM. Parallelisation of the CFD Code of a CFD-NWP Coupled System for the Simulation of Atmospheric Flows over Complex Terrain. In: Palma JMLM, Amestoy PR, Daydé M, Mattoso M, Lopes JC, eds. High Performance Computing for Computational Science - VECPAR 2008: 8th International Conference, Toulouse, France, June 24-27, 2008. Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008:27–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures.

Blog post
Luntz S. Boxes For Owls Help Overcome Middle East Divisions. IFLScience. Available at: Published March 22, 2017 Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Implementing Best Practices and Reform Initiatives Can Help Improve the Management of Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Plaza JL. The Latina/o migrant college student experience. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff J. New Research Center to Explore Ethics of Artificial Intelligence. New York Times. November 2, 2016:B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures
ISSN (print)8756-758X
ISSN (online)1460-2695

Other styles