How to format your references using the Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures (FFEMS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Scalapino DJ. Physics. This coincidence cannot be accidental. Science. 2008;319: 1492–1493.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dalton WS, Friend SH. Cancer biomarkers--an invitation to the table. Science. 2006;312: 1165–1168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Webster AJ, Payne RJH, Pagel M. Molecular phylogenies link rates of evolution and speciation. Science. 2003;301: 478.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chen WJ, Zheng Y, Xiong WM, Feng X, Wang B, Wang Y. Effect of mechanical loads on stability of nanodomains in ferroelectric ultrathin films: towards flexible erasing of the non-volatile memories. Sci Rep. 2014;4: 5339.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fabozzi FJ, Kothari V. Introduction to Securitization. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Toi VV, Toan NB, Dang Khoa TQ, Lien Phuong TH, eds. 4th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering in Vietnam. Vol 49. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Pereira C, Azari K. Replantation of the Digits. In: Salyapongse AN, Poore SO, Afifi AM, Bentz ML, eds. Extremity Replantation: A Comprehensive Clinical Guide. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2015:49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures.

Blog post
Hale T. Check Out This Guy Fighting Against 100mph Winds On Mount Washington. IFLScience. Available at: Published May 20, 2016 Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hazardous Materials Rail Shipments: Emergency Responders Receive Support, but DOT Could Improve Oversight of Information Sharing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gutierrez R. Providing Hope: A Systematic Development of a Resource Manual for Mental Health Professionals Treating Latino/a Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Cold and Tired, Australian Swimmer Wins Marathon for His Father. New York Times. June 18, 2000:87.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures
ISSN (print)8756-758X
ISSN (online)1460-2695

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