How to format your references using the Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures (FFEMS). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fukatsu T. Evolution. A fungal past to insect color. Science. 2010;328: 574–575.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hall PS, Kincaid C. Diapiric flow at subduction zones: a recipe for rapid transport. Science. 2001;292: 2472–2475.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tsori Y, Tournilhac F, Leibler L. Demixing in simple fluids induced by electric field gradients. Nature. 2004;430: 544–547.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mitsui T, Rose MK, Fomin E, Ogletree DF, Salmeron M. Water diffusion and clustering on Pd(111). Science. 2002;297: 1850–1852.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yan SY. Computational Number Theory and Modern Cryptography. Fusionopolis Walk, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.; 2012.
An edited book
Zopounidis C, Doumpos M, Pardalos PM, eds. Handbook of Financial Engineering. Vol 18. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Chehab EW, Braam J. Jasmonates in Plant Defense Responses. In: Witzany G, Baluška F, eds. Biocommunication of Plants. Signaling and Communication in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012:67–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures.

Blog post
Andrew D. How Do Animals See In The Dark? IFLScience. Available at: Published March 13, 2017 Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Centralized Subsystem for Paying Officers in the Commissioned Corps of the Public Health Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alai NL. Development of a Sport-Specific Curriculum Addressing Selfefficacy to Optimize Carbohydrate and Calorie Intake Among Male and Female High School Cross-Country Runners. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Putting the A in STEAM. New York Times. July 27, 2014:WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleFatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures
ISSN (print)8756-758X
ISSN (online)1460-2695

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