How to format your references using the Eye & Contact Lens citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eye & Contact Lens. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buckingham S. Buying into the knowledge game. Nature. 2004;428(6984):775.
A journal article with 2 authors
Silphaduang U, Noga EJ. Peptide antibiotics in mast cells of fish. Nature. 2001;414(6861):268-269.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wardle DA, Nilsson M-C, Zackrisson O. Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus. Science. 2008;320(5876):629.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vilkov O, Fedorov A, Usachov D, et al. Controlled assembly of graphene-capped nickel, cobalt and iron silicides. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2168.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pangarkar VG. Design of Multiphase Reactors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Grancharova A. Explicit Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Theory and Applications. Vol 429. (Johansen TA, ed.). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Aïssani D, Adjabi S, Cherfaoui M, Benkhellat T, Medjkoune N. Forecast of the Traffic and Performance Evaluation of the BMT Container Terminal (Bejaia’s Harbor). In: Reiner G, ed. Rapid Modelling for Increasing Competitiveness: Tools and Mindset. Springer; 2009:53-64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eye & Contact Lens.

Blog post
Davis J. Tiny Octopus Displays Some Pretty Bizarre Hunting, Social, And Sexual Behavior. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Report to the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare on Fundamental Improvements Needed for Timely Promulgation of Health Program Regulations. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rajagopal S. Assessing water management impacts of climate change for a semi-arid watershed in the southwestern US. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. Friday File. New York Times. September 26, 2014:C31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEye & Contact Lens
AbbreviationEye Contact Lens
ISSN (print)1542-2321
ISSN (online)1542-233X

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