How to format your references using the Eye & Contact Lens citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Eye & Contact Lens. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McKinney JC. Astronomy. Probing black hole gravity. Science. 2012;337(6097):916-917.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schneider RA, Helms JA. The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Science. 2003;299(5606):565-568.
A journal article with 3 authors
Diemand J, Moore B, Stadel J. Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe. Nature. 2005;433(7024):389-391.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tsong AE, Tuch BB, Li H, Johnson AD. Evolution of alternative transcriptional circuits with identical logic. Nature. 2006;443(7110):415-420.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Valière J-C. Acoustic Particle Velocity Measurements Using Lasers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Chiumello D, ed. Topical Issues in Anesthesia and Intensive Care. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Filoso S, Martinelli LA, Howarth RW, Boyer EW, Dentener F. Human activities changing the nitrogen cycle in Brazil. In: Martinelli LA, Howarth RW, eds. Nitrogen Cycling in the Americas: Natural and Anthropogenic Influences and Controls. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006:61-89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Eye & Contact Lens.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. NASA Wants To Send Astronauts Near The Moon For A Year Before Going To Mars. IFLScience. Published May 12, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Misuse by the Sigma Corporation, a NASA Contractor. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Puhr RA. Evolution of the Sparse inflorescence1 lineage in grasses. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Matz Heads to the D.L. With a Tight Shoulder. New York Times. August 23, 2016:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEye & Contact Lens
AbbreviationEye Contact Lens
ISSN (print)1542-2321
ISSN (online)1542-233X

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