How to format your references using the Extreme Physiology & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extreme Physiology & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Barber RT. Oceans. Picoplankton do some heavy lifting. Science. 2007;315:777–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wong M, Munro S. Membrane trafficking. The specificity of vesicle traffic to the Golgi is encoded in the golgin coiled-coil proteins. Science. 2014;346:1256898.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sharma B, Mandani S, Sarma TK. Biogenic growth of alloys and core-shell nanostructures using urease as a nanoreactor at ambient conditions. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2601.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Pei ZM, Murata Y, Benning G, Thomine S, Klüsener B, Allen GJ, et al. Calcium channels activated by hydrogen peroxide mediate abscisic acid signalling in guard cells. Nature. 2000;406:731–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Gage LJ. Hand-Rearing Wild and Domestic Mammals. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Deng M, Jiang R, Sun F, Zhang X, editors. Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 17th Annual International Conference, RECOMB 2013, Beijing, China, April 7-10, 2013. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zhang W, Cai Y. Isotropic Elasto-Plastic Damage Mechanics. In: Cai Y, editor. Continuum Damage Mechanics and Numerical Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 135–215.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extreme Physiology & Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. US And China Ratify Paris Climate Deal In “Moment We Decided To Save Our Planet” [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/us-and-china-ratify-paris-climate-deal-in-moment-we-decided-to-save-our-planet/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. China: U.S. and European Union Arms Sales Since the 1989 Embargoes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Apr. Report No.: T-NSIAD-98-171.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Baruth LE. Joan Tower and the clarinet: An examination of her compositional style and a performer’s guide to “RAIN WAVES” (1997) and “A GIFT” (2007) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Card J. No Madonna. No Hanks. No Crying. New York Times. 2017 Sep 3;SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExtreme Physiology & Medicine
AbbreviationExtrem. Physiol. Med.
ISSN (online)2046-7648
Scope

Other styles