How to format your references using the Extreme Physiology & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extreme Physiology & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Abeles M. Neuroscience. Time is precious. Science. 2004;304:523–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hopkins R, Rausher MD. Pollinator-mediated selection on flower color allele drives reinforcement. Science. 2012;335:1090–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Healy LL, Cronin JG, Sheldon IM. Endometrial cells sense and react to tissue damage during infection of the bovine endometrium via interleukin 1. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7060.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Li S, Zhang L, Wang H, Chen Z, Hu J, Xu K, et al. Ta3N5-Pt nonwoven cloth with hierarchical nanopores as efficient and easily recyclable macroscale photocatalysts. Sci Rep. 2014;4:3978.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Metzger RM. The Physical Chemist’s Toolbox. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Mossakowski T, Kreowski H-J, editors. Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques: 20th International Workshop, WADT 2010, Etelsen, Germany, July 1-4, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Burns SN. Gene Expression, Epigenetic Regulation, and Cancer. In: Mishra MK, Bishnupuri KS, editors. Epigenetic Advancements in Cancer. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 79–96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extreme Physiology & Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Earth Narrowly Missed A Potentially Devastating Solar Superstorm In 2012 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Release of Carson City Silver Dollar Bidders List. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Feb. Report No.: LCD-79-106.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kelly EJ. What experiences create and nurture a love of science? [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wagner J. Harvey and the Mets Struggle Again. New York Times. 2017 May 3;B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExtreme Physiology & Medicine
AbbreviationExtrem. Physiol. Med.
ISSN (online)2046-7648

Other styles