How to format your references using the Extreme Physiology & Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Extreme Physiology & Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Komarova NL. Cancer: A moving target. Nature. 2015;525:198–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rowitch DH, Kriegstein AR. Developmental genetics of vertebrate glial-cell specification. Nature. 2010;468:214–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Schoener TW, Losos JB, Spiller DA. Island biogeography of populations: an introduced species transforms survival patterns. Science. 2005;310:1807–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang L, Yao T, Shi S, Cao Y, Sun W. A label-free fluorescent probe for Hg2+ and biothiols based on graphene oxide and Ru-complex. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5320.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Neupert R. French Animation History. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Beck ACS, Lang Lisbôa CA, Carro L, editors. Adaptable Embedded Systems. New York, NY: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Li B, Kim Y-C. Energy Efficient Spectrum Allocation in IP-over-EON with Traffic Grooming. In: Vinh PC, Barolli L, editors. Nature of Computation and Communication: Second International Conference, ICTCC 2016, Rach Gia, Vietnam, March 17-18, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Extreme Physiology & Medicine.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. Stephen Hawking Covers Monty Python’s ‘Galaxy Song’ [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Job Training: Effect of Under-Reported Unemployment Data on Grant Funding to Rural Areas. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1985 Nov. Report No.: HRD-86-35BR.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Crozier CF. A qualitative study of teacher job satisfaction in an evolutionary and mandated change environment [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. (nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Kursk Fragments Recovered. New York Times. 2002 Jun 5;A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExtreme Physiology & Medicine
AbbreviationExtrem. Physiol. Med.
ISSN (online)2046-7648

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