How to format your references using the Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gewin V. The new networking nexus. Nature. 2008;451:1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mukhopadhyay RD, Ajayaghosh A. Supramolecular chemistry. Living supramolecular polymerization. Science. 2015;349:241–242.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mani RG, Kriisa A, Wegscheider W. Size-dependent giant-magnetoresistance in millimeter scale GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron devices. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2747.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cardin JA, Carlén M, Meletis K, et al. Driving fast-spiking cells induces gamma rhythm and controls sensory responses. Nature. 2009;459:663–667.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johansen GA, Jackson P. Radioisotope Gauges for Industrial Process Measurements. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
Keupp MM, editor. The Northern Sea Route: A Comprehensive Analysis. Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Kleppel GS, Porter DE, DeVoe MR. Urban Typology and Estuarine Biodiversity in Rapidly Developing Coastal Watersheds. In: Kleppel GS, DeVoe MR, Rawson MV, editors. Changing Land Use Patterns in the Coastal Zone: Managing Environmental Quality in Rapidly Developing Regions. New York, NY: Springer; 2006. p. 69–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development.

Blog post
Andrew E. Eye Drops Could Cure Cataracts – And Long-Sightedness. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellites: Information on Program Cost and Schedule Changes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004. Report No.: GAO-04-1054. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reynolds PR. Midkine (MK) Regulates Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling During Hypoxia [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2004.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. On Tulsa’s Long-Shot Olympic Pitch, Mayor and Others Say Never Mind. New York Times. 2013 Jul 4;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Precis. Med. Drug Dev.
ISSN (online)2380-8993

Other styles