How to format your references using the Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bobrow M. Balancing privacy with public benefit. Nature. 2013;500:123.
A journal article with 2 authors
Primakoff P, Myles DG. Penetration, adhesion, and fusion in mammalian sperm-egg interaction. Science. 2002;296:2183–2185.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lutolf MP, Gilbert PM, Blau HM. Designing materials to direct stem-cell fate. Nature. 2009;462:433–441.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Coelho AS, Barbosa FAS, Cassemiro KN, et al. Three-color entanglement. Science. 2009;326:823–826.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins BR. The Law of Tax-Exempt Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Lichtfouse E, Schwarzbauer J, Robert D, editors. Environmental Chemistry: Green Chemistry and Pollutants in Ecosystems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Deconinck G, Vanthournout K, Beitollahi H, et al. A Robust Semantic Overlay Network for Microgrid Control Applications. In: Lemos R de, Giandomenico FD, Gacek C, et al., editors. Architecting Dependable Systems V. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. p. 101–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development.

Blog post
Andrew E. ‘I Could Sow The Seeds Of A New Civilisation’: Mars One Hopeful’s Vision Of A Stellar Future [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Train Braking: DOT’s Rulemaking on Electronically Controlled Pneumatic Brakes Could Benefit from Additional Data and Transparency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2016. Report No.: GAO-17-122. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chahine J. Social workers’ perceptions of individuals who use drugs and alcohol problematically [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McPHATE M. Man Cuffed on Failure to Return VHS Tape. New York Times. 2016 Mar 27;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Precis. Med. Drug Dev.
ISSN (online)2380-8993

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