How to format your references using the Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hassan MHA. Nanotechnology. Small things and big changes in the developing world. Science. 2005;309:65–66.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kitagawa N, Ichihara S. Hearing visual motion in depth. Nature. 2002;416:172–174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Immerzeel WW, van Beek LPH, Bierkens MFP. Climate change will affect the Asian water towers. Science. 2010;328:1382–1385.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Laporte NT, Stabach JA, Grosch R, et al. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa. Science. 2007;316:1451.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martin-Flatin J-P. Web-Based Management of IP Networks and Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2002.
An edited book
Schomburg D, Schomburg I, Chang A, editors. Springer Handbook of Enzymes: Class 2 · Transferases XII EC 2.7.8–2.9.1. Second Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Lazaric A. Transfer in Reinforcement Learning: A Framework and a Survey. In: Wiering M, Otterlo M van, editors. Reinforcement Learning: State-of-the-Art. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 143–173.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development.

Blog post
Andrew E. Mutations of Cancer ‘Stem Cells’ Tracked For The First Time [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:‘stem-cells’-tracked-first-time/.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Afloat Prepositioning: Not All Equipment Meets the Army’s Readiness Goal. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997. Report No.: NSIAD-97-169. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ibarra AL. Novice Clinicians and the Experience of Transcendence in Clinical Training and Supervision [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. After 27 Years, With Money Tight, A Tall-Masted Classic Must Go. New York Times. 2003 May 18;146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Precision Medicine & Drug Development
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Precis. Med. Drug Dev.
ISSN (online)2380-8993

Other styles