How to format your references using the Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weiss RA. Gulliver’s travels in HIVland. Nature. 2001;410:963–967.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dye C, Williams BG. The population dynamics and control of tuberculosis. Science. 2010;328:856–861.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dean R, Bonsall MB, Pizzari T. Evolution. Aging and sexual conflict. Science. 2007;316:383–384.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Marchitto TM, Lehman SJ, Ortiz JD, et al. Marine radiocarbon evidence for the mechanism of deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise. Science. 2007;316:1456–1459.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zack GM. Financial Statement Fraud. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Koslow A, Buchsbaum A, editors. The Road to Universal Logic: Festschrift for the 50th Birthday of Jean-Yves Béziau Volume II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Wilson RJ, Miner MH. Measurement of Male Sexual Arousal and Interest Using Penile Plethysmography and Viewing Time. In: Laws DR, O’Donohue W, editors. Treatment of Sex Offenders: Strengths and Weaknesses in Assessment and Intervention. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 107–131.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. Deep Calls Or Big Balls? Howler Monkeys Are Either All Mouth, Or All Trousers [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Gulf War Illnesses: Preliminary Assessment of DOD Plume Modeling for U.S. Troops’ Exposure to Chemical Agents. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003. Report No.: GAO-03-833T. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robertson M. Respite efficacy for parents of adults with intellectual disabilities: An ethnographic perspective [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly K, Rappeport A. Goldman Sachs Veteran Withdraws From Nomination to Treasury. New York Times. 2017 May 19;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Pharmacoecon. Outcomes Res.
ISSN (print)1473-7167
ISSN (online)1744-8379
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Health Policy
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles