How to format your references using the Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. World view: Calling science to account. Nature. 2010;463:875.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tosatti E, Prestipino S. MATERIALS SCIENCE: Weird Gold Nanowires. Science. 2000;289:561–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song T-RA, Helmberger DV, Grand SP. Low-velocity zone atop the 410-km seismic discontinuity in the northwestern United States. Nature. 2004;427:530–533.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Esplugues E, Huber S, Gagliani N, et al. Control of TH17 cells occurs in the small intestine. Nature. 2011;475:514–518.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maloberti F. Understanding Microelectronics. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
Kourtev IS, Taskin B, Friedman EG, editors. Timing Optimization Through Clock Skew Scheduling. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Rotte A, Bhandaru M. Melanoma—Treatment. In: Bhandaru M, editor. Immunotherapy of Melanoma. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 79–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology.

Blog post
Fang J. Single Shot Could Replace Spaying And Neutering [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Safety: Have Automobile Weight Reductions Increased Highway Fatalities? Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991. Report No.: PEMD-92-1. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Spotts SL. A Comparative Analysis of Missouri Elementary School Arts Curriculums [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B, Saad H. Thousands Evacuated From Besieged Syrian Towns. New York Times. 2017 Apr 14;A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1747-4124
ISSN (online)1747-4132

Other styles