How to format your references using the Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chisari FV. Unscrambling hepatitis C virus-host interactions. Nature. 2005;436:930–932.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lo M-T, Lee W-C. Detecting a weak association by testing its multiple perturbations: a data mining approach. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5081.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vaupel JW, Carey JR, Christensen K. Aging. It’s never too late. Science. 2003;301:1679–1681.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ono T, Kumamoto A, Nakagawa H, et al. Lunar radar sounder observations of subsurface layers under the nearside maria of the Moon. Science. 2009;323:909–912.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Huddleston R. Android® Fully Loaded. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Greco S, Ehrgott M, Figueira JR, editors. Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis: State of the Art Surveys. 2nd ed. 2016. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Caria AA, Silva AM, Gomes DRR, et al. Accounting as an Information System. In: Machado C, Davim JP, editors. MBA: Theory and Application of Business and Management Principles. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 125–156.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. A New Space Race Is On To Bring The Internet To The Whole World [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reagan National Airport: Capacity to Handle Additional Flights and Impact on Other Area Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999. Report No.: RCED-99-234. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuqi K. A matrix-Based Method for Optimizing the User Interface Design of Electronic Medical Record Systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. On the Home Lawn, Where Alligators Roam. New York Times. 2006 Aug 12;LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1747-4124
ISSN (online)1747-4132

Other styles