How to format your references using the Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bregman JN. Cosmology. The cosmic web of baryons. Science. 2002;298:72–73.
A journal article with 2 authors
Armatas GS, Kanatzidis MG. Hexagonal mesoporous germanium. Science. 2006;313:817–820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Heimpel M, Aurnou J, Wicht J. Simulation of equatorial and high-latitude jets on Jupiter in a deep convection model. Nature. 2005;438:193–196.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kartal B, Maalcke WJ, de Almeida NM, et al. Molecular mechanism of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Nature. 2011;479:127–130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tanwir S, Perros H. VBR Video Traffic Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Eifel PJ, Gershenson DM, Kavanagh JJ, et al., editors. Gynecologic Cancer. New York, NY: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Kriz I, Pultr A. Integration II: Measurable Functions, Measure and the Techniques of Lebesgue Integration. In: Pultr A, editor. Introduction to Mathematical Analysis. Basel: Springer; 2013. p. 117–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology.

Blog post
Davis J. New Clones Of Dolly The Sheep Age No Differently Than Normal [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Organization Conflict of Interest. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976. Report No.: B-178205. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hill - Carter CN. Effects of teacher mentoring on teacher retention [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. Fact Check: Rumors, Claims And Context on G.O.P. Health Bill. New York Times. 2017 May 6;A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExpert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
AbbreviationExpert Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1747-4124
ISSN (online)1747-4132

Other styles