How to format your references using the Experimental Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond, J., 2002. Evolution, consequences and future of plant and animal domestication. Nature 418, 700–707.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tregenza, T., Wedell, N., 2002. Polyandrous females avoid costs of inbreeding. Nature 415, 71–73.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maruyama, M., Lam, K.P., Rajewsky, K., 2000. Memory B-cell persistence is independent of persisting immunizing antigen. Nature 407, 636–642.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, J., Liu, Y.-X., Ozdemir, S.K., Wu, R.-B., Gao, F., Wang, X.-B., Yang, L., Nori, F., 2013. Quantum internet using code division multiple access. Sci. Rep. 3, 2211.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kuus, M., 2013. Geopolitics and Expertise. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Huang, R., Kinshuk, Spector, J.M. (Eds.), 2013. Reshaping Learning: Frontiers of Learning Technology in a Global Context, New Frontiers of Educational Research. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Viale, R., 2010. Different Cognitive Styles in the Academy-Industry Collaboration, in: Magnani, L., Carnielli, W., Pizzi, C. (Eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology: Abduction, Logic, and Computational Discovery, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Neurology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Does Global Warming Mean More Or Less Snow? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. FAA Reauthorization: Opportunity Exists to Address Safety, Capacity, and Efficiency Issues (No. T-RCED-93-75). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sewell, A., 2013. A typology of sampling in hip-hop (Doctoral dissertation). Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2017. Podcast Therapy. New York Times BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Diamond, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Diamond, 2002; Tregenza and Wedell, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tregenza and Wedell, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Neurology
AbbreviationExp. Neurol.
ISSN (print)0014-4886
ScopeDevelopmental Neuroscience

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