How to format your references using the Experimental Neurology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental Neurology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blow, N., 2009. Systems biology: Playing by the rules. Nature 460, 417.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, J.B., Ferrell, J.E., Jr, 2013. Mitotic trigger waves and the spatial coordination of the Xenopus cell cycle. Nature 500, 603–607.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hibbett, D.S., Gilbert, L.B., Donoghue, M.J., 2000. Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses in basidiomycetes. Nature 407, 506–508.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Griffith, C.A., Owen, T., Geballe, T.R., Rayner, J., Rannou, P., 2003. Evidence for the exposure of water ice on Titan’s surface. Science 300, 628–630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Merritt, C., 2015. Process Steam Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vlad, S., Ciupa, R.V., Nicu, A.I. (Eds.), 2009. International Conference on Advancements of Medicine and Health Care through Technology: 23–26 September, 2009, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, IFMBE Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Fogue, M., Garrido, P., Martinez, F.J., Cano, J.-C., Calafate, C.T., Manzoni, P., 2012. Using Data Mining and Vehicular Networks to Estimate the Severity of Traffic Accidents, in: Casillas, J., Martínez-López, F.J., Corchado Rodríguez, J.M. (Eds.), Management Intelligent Systems: First International Symposium, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 37–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental Neurology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. New Study Suggests The Origin Of Iapetus’ Ridge [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Vehicle Safety: Enhanced Project Management of New Information Technology Could Help Improve NHTSA’s Oversight of Safety Defects (No. GAO-16-312). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chellamuthu, V.K., 2015. Structured Population Models: Numerical Methods and Application to Frogs Infected with Chytridiomycosis (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2014. U.S. Olympian Explains Positive Test. New York Times B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blow, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Blow, 2009; Chang and Ferrell, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chang and Ferrell, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Griffith et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental Neurology
AbbreviationExp. Neurol.
ISSN (print)0014-4886
ScopeDevelopmental Neuroscience

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