How to format your references using the Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Mundy D. Recruiters and academia. Lessons learned from a denied grant. Zen and the art of grant application. Nature. 2005;435:382.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Aeppli G, Soh YA. Physics Quantum criticality in a clean metal. Science. 2001;294:315–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Wieman CE, Adams WK, Perkins KK. PHYSICS. PhET: simulations that enhance learning. Science. 2008;322:682–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Izard T, Evans G, Borgon RA, Rush CL, Bricogne G, Bois PRJ. Vinculin activation by talin through helical bundle conversion. Nature. 2004;427:171–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Morton A, Mengersen K, Whitby M, Playford G. Statistical Methods for Hospital Monitoring with R. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Guger C, Allison B, Leuthardt EC, editors. Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary -2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Chang I, Rehman AO, Wang C-Y. Molecular Signaling in Oral Cancer Invasion and Metastasis. In: M. Fribley A, editor. Targeting Oral Cancer. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 71–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Iconic Boab Trees Trace Journeys Of Ancient Aboriginal People [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal R&D Budget. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979 Apr. Report No.: 109022.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Carter IM. The discourse of the divine: Radical traditions of Black feminism, musicking, and myth within the Black public sphere (Civil Rights to the present) [Doctoral dissertation]. [Boca Raton, FL]: Florida Atlantic University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Scare Easily? You’re in the Wrong Place. New York Times. 2017 Mar 20;C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
AbbreviationExp. Transl. Stroke Med.
ISSN (online)2040-7378
ScopeNeuroscience (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience

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