How to format your references using the Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Blumberg BS. Obituary: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008). Nature. 2008;452:422.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Morris SC, Caron J-B. A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America. Nature. 2014;512:419–22.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fang Y, Seong N-H, Dlott DD. Measurement of the distribution of site enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Science. 2008;321:388–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Srinivasan G, Whitehouse MJ, Weber I, Yamaguchi A. The crystallization age of eucrite zircon. Science. 2007;317:345–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stephans RA. System Safety for the 21 st Century. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Fadare O, editor. Precancerous Lesions of the Gynecologic Tract: Diagnostic and Molecular Genetic Pathology. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Mac Innis KA. The Canadian SSOP Fund and Environmental Damage Assessment (EDA) in Canada. In: Maes F, editor. Marine Resource Damage Assessment: Liability and Compensation for Environmental Damage. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 67–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. How A Nasty, Brain-Eating Parasite Could Help Us Fight Cancer. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. FTS2001: Transition Challenges Jeopardize Program Goals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Mar. Report No.: GAO-01-289.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Diaz D. A discrete hollow—Los Angeles [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Justices Uphold a Death Sentence Twice Overturned. New York Times. 2006 Nov 14;A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
AbbreviationExp. Transl. Stroke Med.
ISSN (online)2040-7378
ScopeNeuroscience (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience

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