How to format your references using the Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Schiermeier Q. Westernizing Eastern-bloc science. Nature. 2008;453:558–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yoon S-J, Lee Y-W. An aligned stream of low-metallicity clusters in the halo of the Milky Way. Science. 2002;297:578–81.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Faller M, Niederweis M, Schulz GE. The structure of a mycobacterial outer-membrane channel. Science. 2004;303:1189–92.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Farhat M, Chen P-Y, Bağcı H, Enoch S, Guenneau S, Alù A. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4644.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Sarker DK. Pharmaceutical Emulsions. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Krawczyk H, editor. Public-Key Cryptography – PKC 2014: 17th International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 26-28, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Berman LW. Geometric Constructions for Symmetric 6-Configurations. In: Connelly R, Ivić Weiss A, Whiteley W, editors. Rigidity and Symmetry. New York, NY: Springer; 2014. p. 61–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. DNA Results Suggest Kennewick Man Was Native American [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Organizational Transformation: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (Version 2.0) (Supersedes GAO-03-584G). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 Aug. Report No.: GAO-10-846G.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Eutz RJ. The experiences of Recovery High School students: Using empirical phenomenology to garner knowledge [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Wilson M. In Chelsea Bombing Trial, a Lesson on How a Cellphone Becomes a Trigger. New York Times. 2017 Oct 10;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental & Translational Stroke Medicine
AbbreviationExp. Transl. Stroke Med.
ISSN (online)2040-7378
ScopeNeuroscience (miscellaneous)
Cognitive Neuroscience

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