How to format your references using the Experimental & Molecular Medicine citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Experimental & Molecular Medicine. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willis JH. Genetics. Origin of species in overdrive. Science 2009; 323: 350–351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Toffelmier DA, Tyburczy JA. Electromagnetic detection of a 410-km-deep melt layer in the southwestern United States. Nature 2007; 447: 991–994.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hosoya T, Baccus SA, Meister M. Dynamic predictive coding by the retina. Nature 2005; 436: 71–77.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Orme CA, Noy A, Wierzbicki A, McBride MT, Grantham M, Teng HH et al. Formation of chiral morphologies through selective binding of amino acids to calcite surface steps. Nature 2001; 411: 775–779.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beiser L. Unified Optical Scanning Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
Huang D-S, Han K, Gromiha M (eds.). Intelligent Computing in Bioinformatics: 10th International Conference, ICIC 2014, Taiyuan, China, August 3-6, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Holdaway S. Surface Survey: Method and Strategies. In: Carver M, Gaydarska B, Montón-Subías S (eds). Field Archaeology from Around the World: Ideas and Approaches. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015, pp 27–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Experimental & Molecular Medicine.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Spectacular Stellar Winds Seen In Highest Resolution Yet. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Overseas Schools: Additional Assurances of Educational Quality Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simmons CI. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Multiple Independent Variables Impacting Psychiatric Readmissions. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. JUSTICES SAY E.P.A. HAS POWER TO ACT ON HARMFUL GASES. New York Times. 2007; : A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleExperimental & Molecular Medicine
AbbreviationExp. Mol. Med.
ISSN (print)1226-3613
ISSN (online)2092-6413
Clinical Biochemistry
Molecular Biology
Molecular Medicine

Other styles