How to format your references using the Evolution: Education and Outreach citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Evolution: Education and Outreach. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson JN. Ecology. Mutualistic webs of species. Science. 2006 Apr 21;312(5772):372–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brecht M, Schmitz D. Neuroscience. Rules of plasticity. Science. 2008 Jan 4;319(5859):39–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang W, Birk FT, Davidović D. Effects of confinement and electron transport on magnetic switching in single Co nanoparticles. Sci. Rep. 2013 Feb 4;3:1200.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liu H, Ye F, Yao Q, Cao H, Xie J, Lee JY, et al. Stellated Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles: an effective platform for catalytic activity tuning. Sci. Rep. 2014 Feb 5;4:3969.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Vreeswijk M, Broersen J, Schurink G. Mindfulness and Schema Therapy. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2014.
An edited book
Paulweber M. Powertrain Instrumentation and Test Systems: Development – Hybridization – Electrification. Lebert K, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hassine J. AsmL-Based Concurrency Semantic Variations for Timed Use Case Maps. In: Frappier M, Glässer U, Khurshid S, Laleau R, Reeves S, editors. Abstract State Machines, Alloy, B and Z: Second International Conference, ABZ 2010, Orford, QC, Canada, February 22-25, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 34–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Evolution: Education and Outreach.

Blog post
Hale T. The UK Will Ban Plastic Microbeads By 2017 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Schools and Libraries Corporation: Actions Needed to Strengthen Program Integrity Operations Before Committing Funds. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Jul. Report No.: T-RCED-98-243.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Humphreys BP. The Role of Developmental Screening Practices in Early Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Analysis of All-Payer Claims Data in New Hampshire [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James S. Losing a Fortune. New York Times. 2017 Feb 19;F4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thompson 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Brecht and Schmitz 2008; Thompson 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brecht and Schmitz 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEvolution: Education and Outreach
AbbreviationEvolution (N. Y.)
ISSN (print)1936-6426
ISSN (online)1936-6434

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