How to format your references using the European Respiratory Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Respiratory Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Zeebe RE. Journal club. A physicist and biogeochemist gets a kick out of the problem of Brownian motion and diffusion. Nature 2010; 466: 1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Hoefel F, Elgar S. Wave-induced sediment transport and sandbar migration. Science 2003; 299: 1885–1887.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ma H, Aihara K, Chen L. Detecting causality from nonlinear dynamics with short-term time series. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 7464.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
1.
Rose GJ, Goller F, Gritton HJ, Plamondon SL, Baugh AT, Cooper BG. Species-typical songs in white-crowned sparrows tutored with only phrase pairs. Nature 2004; 432: 753–758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Taha A-EM, Hassanein HS, Ali NA. LTE, LTE-Advanced and WiMAX. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1.
Lugtenberg B, editor. Principles of Plant-Microbe Interactions: Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Uthayakumar R. Fractal Dimension in Epileptic EEG Signal Analysis. In: Banerjee S, Rondoni L, editors. Applications of Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics in Science and Engineering - Vol. 3 Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 103–157.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Respiratory Journal.

Blog post
1.
Evans K. Pigeons Can Depose A Leader By Staging A Coup [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30].Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/pigeons-can-depose-a-leader-by-staging-coup/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Electronic Government: Progress and Challenges in Implementing the Office of Personnel Management’s Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 SepReport No.: GAO-03-1169T. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Brown JT. Evaluation of a social science simulation by uncertainty analysis and comparison [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Walsh MW. Fierce Debt Puts Pensions at Risk In Puerto Rico. New York Times 2012; : A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Respiratory Journal
AbbreviationEur. Respir. J.
ISSN (print)0903-1936
ISSN (online)1399-3003
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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