How to format your references using the European Respiratory Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Respiratory Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Dobson A. Epidemiology. Mathematical models for emerging disease. Science 2014; 346: 1294–1295.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Caldeira K, Wickett ME. Oceanography: anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 2003; 425: 365.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Leitch DB, Sarko DK, Catania KC. Brain mass and cranial nerve size in shrews and moles. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 6241.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
1.
Prinz M, Heikenwalder M, Junt T, Schwarz P, Glatzel M, Heppner FL, Fu Y-X, Lipp M, Aguzzi A. Positioning of follicular dendritic cells within the spleen controls prion neuroinvasion. Nature 2003; 425: 957–962.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Thomas CG. Greece. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1.
Almeida JP, Oliveira JF, Pinto AA, editors. Operational Research: IO 2013 - XVI Congress of APDIO, Bragança, Portugal, June 3-5, 2013. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Couvidat S. Solar Oscillations: Current Trends. In: Miralles MP, Sánchez Almeida J, editors. The Sun, the Solar Wind, and the Heliosphere Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011. p. 31–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Respiratory Journal.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Bacteria Unite To Save Your Guts [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30].Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/bacteria-unite-save-your-guts/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Assessment of Bilateral Telecommunications Agreements With Japan. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 OctReport No.: NSIAD-84-2. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Dorin J. Attachment style and perceived stress in college students [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Markoff J. Study Finds Vulnerability in Wide Range of Devices. New York Times 2017; : B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Respiratory Journal
AbbreviationEur. Respir. J.
ISSN (print)0903-1936
ISSN (online)1399-3003
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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