How to format your references using the European Respiratory Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Respiratory Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hannon GJ. RNA interference. Nature 2002; 418: 244–251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kawakatsu H, Watada S. Seismic evidence for deep-water transportation in the mantle. Science 2007; 316: 1468–1471.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raviv U, Laurat P, Klein J. Fluidity of water confined to subnanometre films. Nature 2001; 413: 51–54.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Feuillet-Palma C, Todorov Y, Vasanelli A, Sirtori C. Strong near field enhancement in THz nano-antenna arrays. Sci. Rep. 2013; 3: 1361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robyns B, François B, Delille G, Saudemont C. Energy Storage in Electric Power Grids. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
Keuchel M, Hagenmüller F, Tajiri H, editors. Video Capsule Endoscopy: A Reference Guide and Atlas. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang Q, Li H, Zhang X. Cat Scratch Disease. In: Li H, editor. Radiology of Infectious Diseases: Volume 2 Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 63–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Respiratory Journal.

Blog post
Hamilton K. “Seeing’’ Music Or ‘Tasting’’ Numbers? Here’s What We Can Learn From People With Synaesthesia’” [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30].Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Bankruptcy and Pension Problems Are Symptoms of Underlying Structural Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005 SepReport No.: GAO-05-945. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Milillo MS. Analysis of emotional intelligence among management leaders and non-management leaders in software development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nordland R, Kanter J. Turkey and E.U. Near Breaking Point in Talks on Membership. New York Times 2016; : A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Respiratory Journal
AbbreviationEur. Respir. J.
ISSN (print)0903-1936
ISSN (online)1399-3003
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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