How to format your references using the European Respiratory Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Respiratory Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stone AJ. Intermolecular potentials. Science 2008; 321: 787–789.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hagoort P, Levelt WJM. Neuroscience. The speaking brain. Science 2009; 326: 372–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Min S-K, Zhang X, Zwiers F. Human-induced Arctic moistening. Science 2008; 320: 518–520.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Li M, Tou WI, Zhou H, Li F, Ren H, Chen CY-C, Yang B. Developing hypothetical inhibition mechanism of novel urea transporter B inhibitor. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 5775.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cantrell RS, Cosner C. Spatial Ecology via Reaction-Diffusion Equations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Wiercigroch M, Rega G, editors. IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design, held Aberdeen, UK, 27-30 July 2010. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Shayler DJ, Harland DM. Simulating servicing. In: Harland DM, editor. The Hubble Space Telescope: From Concept to Success New York, NY: Springer; 2016. p. 190–245.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Respiratory Journal.

Blog post
Andrew E. Study Concludes Autism Can Be Largely Explained By Genetics [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30].Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Financial Aid Systems: Absence of Guiding Architecture Reduces Efficiency, Ease of Use. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 JulReport No.: T-AIMD-97-147. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sutton DL. Alumni perceptions of the role of field education in professional preparation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. A Federal Program Helps Flip Houses on Long Island. New York Times 2009; : LI7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Respiratory Journal
AbbreviationEur. Respir. J.
ISSN (print)0903-1936
ISSN (online)1399-3003
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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