How to format your references using the European Respiratory Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Respiratory Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smaglik P. Trust me, I’m a doctor. Nature 2003; 426: 101.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Yang Y, Lisberger SG. Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by complex-spike duration. Nature 2014; 510: 529–532.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Benham-Pyle BW, Pruitt BL, Nelson WJ. Cell adhesion. Mechanical strain induces E-cadherin-dependent Yap1 and β-catenin activation to drive cell cycle entry. Science 2015; 348: 1024–1027.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
1.
Li Q, Wang X, Xin Y, Zhang Z, Zhang Y, Hao C, Meng M, Zheng L, Zheng L. A unified intermediate and mechanism for soot combustion on potassium-supported oxides. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 4725.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Chadha R, Kant L. Policy-Driven Mobile Ad hoc Network Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1.
Rao AR. Regionalization of Watersheds: An Approach Based on Cluster Analysis. Srinivas VV, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Brasileiro F, Almeida JPA, Carvalho VA, Guizzardi G. Expressive Multi-level Modeling for the Semantic Web. In: Groth P, Simperl E, Gray A, Sabou M, Krötzsch M, Lecue F, Flöck F, Gil Y, editors. The Semantic Web – ISWC 2016: 15th International Semantic Web Conference, Kobe, Japan, October 17–21, 2016, Proceedings, Part I Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 53–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Respiratory Journal.

Blog post
1.
Carpineti A. Close-Up Of Comet Shows Surface Changes In Its Approach To The Sun [Internet]. IFLScience IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30].Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/close-comet-surface-changes-its-approach-sun/.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Review of Ohio State Plan for the Education of Handicapped Children. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 AprReport No.: 088676. .

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Nakayama M. Educational Advocacy for Children in Foster Care: A Grant Proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: U.S. Asylum For Blast Survivor. New York Times 2005; : A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Respiratory Journal
AbbreviationEur. Respir. J.
ISSN (print)0903-1936
ISSN (online)1399-3003
ScopePulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

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