How to format your references using the European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, E. (2003). National Academies launch grants for interdisciplinary work. Nature, 422(6934), 791.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xu, W., & Angell, C. A. (2003). Solvent-free electrolytes with aqueous solution-like conductivities. Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5644), 422–425.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chu, L., Xiao, K.-J., & Yu, J.-Q. (2014). Room-temperature enantioselective C-H iodination via kinetic resolution. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6208), 451–455.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Hu, K., Carroll, J., Fedorovich, S., Rickman, C., Sukhodub, A., & Davletov, B. (2002). Vesicular restriction of synaptobrevin suggests a role for calcium in membrane fusion. Nature, 415(6872), 646–650.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, S. M. (2010). The New CFO Financial Leadership Manual. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Purchase, D. (Ed.). (2016). Fungal Applications in Sustainable Environmental Biotechnology. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, X., Fan, Z., Wang, J., & Liao, H. (2016). 3D Augmented Reality Based Orthopaedic Interventions. In G. Zheng & S. Li (Eds.), Computational Radiology for Orthopaedic Interventions (pp. 71–90). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 6). Toyota To Follow In Tesla’s Footsteps By Releasing Its Fuel-Cell Patents. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). GAO Research Guide: Computers and Information Technology Issues (No. 145121). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Escamilla, D. (2012). How performance following the implementation of a new structure affects employee engagement [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, June 29). Look & See: A Portrait of Wendell Berry. New York Times, C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Check, 2003; Xu & Angell, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xu & Angell, 2003)
  • Three authors: (Chu et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Hu et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
ISSN (print)2468-7499

Other styles