How to format your references using the European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gregory, R. (2000). Reversing Rorschach. Nature, 404(6773), 19.
A journal article with 2 authors
St Laurent, L. C., & Thurnherr, A. M. (2007). Intense mixing of lower thermocline water on the crest of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Nature, 448(7154), 680–683.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hung, R.-J., Pak, C. W., & Terman, J. R. (2011). Direct redox regulation of F-actin assembly and disassembly by Mical. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6063), 1710–1713.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, X., Ren, X., Kahen, K., Hahn, M. A., Rajeswaran, M., Maccagnano-Zacher, S., … Krauss, T. D. (2009). Non-blinking semiconductor nanocrystals. Nature, 459(7247), 686–689.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hessel, V., Löwe, H., Müller, A., & Kolb, G. (2005). Chemical Micro Process Engineering. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Gamble, A. (2013). Beginning Rails 4. (C. Carneiro & R. A. Barazi, Eds.). Berkeley, CA: Apress.
A chapter in an edited book
Carayannis, E. G., Pirzadeh, A., & Popescu, D. (2012). Epistemic Communities, Knowledge Transfer, and Institutional Learning. In A. Pirzadeh & D. Popescu (Eds.), Institutional Learning and Knowledge Transfer Across Epistemic Communities: New Tools of Global Governance (pp. 123–150). New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, July 8). Largest Flying Bird Ever Had 6.4-Meter Wingspan. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Federal Student Loans: Challenges in Estimating Federal Subsidy Costs (No. GAO-05-874). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Peters, B. (2010). From Cybernetics to Cyber Networks: Norbert Wiener, the Soviet Internet, and the Cold War Dawn of Information Universalism (Doctoral dissertation). Columbia University, New York, NY.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L. (2007, April 26). Justices Raise Doubts on Campaign Finance Law. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gregory, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gregory, 2000; St Laurent & Thurnherr, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (St Laurent & Thurnherr, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Hung, Pak, & Terman, 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Wang et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
ISSN (print)2468-7499

Other styles