How to format your references using the European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ghahramani Z (2015) Probabilistic machine learning and artificial intelligence. Nature 521:452–459
A journal article with 2 authors
Waldmann H, Cobbold S (2004) Exploiting tolerance processes in transplantation. Science 305:209–212
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang Z, Xu B, Zhou H-J (2014) Social cycling and conditional responses in the Rock-Paper-Scissors game. Sci Rep 4:5830
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Dequéant M-L, Glynn E, Gaudenz K, et al (2006) A complex oscillating network of signaling genes underlies the mouse segmentation clock. Science 314:1595–1598

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levander CF (2013) Where is American Literature? Wiley Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Alippi C, Polycarpou M, Panayiotou C, Ellinas G (2009) Artificial Neural Networks – ICANN 2009: 19th International Conference, Limassol, Cyprus, September 14-17, 2009, Proceedings, Part I. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Hamada A, Esteves SC, Agarwal A (2016) Varicocele Classification. In: Esteves SC, Agarwal A (eds) Varicocele and Male Infertility: Current Concepts, Controversies and Consensus. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 37–43

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016) An Artist Wants To 3D Print Someone’s Laugh In Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) FAA Budget: 1991 Funding Request for Computers and Communications Can Be Reduced. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Boyer MD (2009) Organizational improvisation within an episodic planning model: A systems perspective. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson G (2016) Scientists Ponder Contagious Cancer. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology
AbbreviationEur. J. Orthop. Surg. Traumatol.
ISSN (print)1633-8065
ISSN (online)1432-1068
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles