How to format your references using the European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mirkin SM. DNA replication: driving past four-stranded snags. Nature. 2013 May 23;497(7450):449–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson PA, Norris RD. Warm tropical ocean surface and global anoxia during the mid-Cretaceous period. Nature. 2001 Jul 26;412(6845):425–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richmond BJ, Liu Z, Shidara M. Neuroscience. Predicting future rewards. Science. 2003 Jul 11;301(5630):179–80.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Garner MH, Li H, Chen Y, Su TA, Shangguan Z, Paley DW, et al. Comprehensive suppression of single-molecule conductance using destructive σ-interference. Nature. 2018 Jun;558(7710):415–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ventre D. Information Warfare. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Deng H, Miao D, Wang FL, Lei J, editors. Emerging Research in Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence: International Conference, AICI 2011, Taiyuan, China, September 23-25, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. XVIII, 609 p. (Communications in Computer and Information Science; vol. 237).
A chapter in an edited book
Lin C-L, Yeh J-T, Kao C-C. The Study of Usability Performance in the E-commerce Websites. In: Chuan P, Khachidze V, Lai IKW, Liu Y, Siddiqui S, Wang T, editors. Innovation in the High-Tech Economy. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 53–66. (Contributions to Economics).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology.

Blog post
Fang J. Stick Bug Study Suggests Evolution is Predictable. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Information Lacking on Government Telecommunications Services and Equipment. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Feb. Report No.: MASAD-83-16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Khatib E. A phenomenological study on the potential impact of implementing information systems in midsize corporations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chapman MM. Bankruptcy Judge Gets View of Detroit Outside Courtroom. New York Times. 2014 Aug 9;A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
AbbreviationEur. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)0954-691X
ISSN (online)1473-5687

Other styles