How to format your references using the European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bianco P. Don’t market stem-cell products ahead of proof. Nature 2013 18;499:255.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brown MS, Goldstein JL. Biomedicine. Lowering LDL--not only how low, but how long? Science 2006 24;311:1721–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Oganov AR, Brodholt JP, Price GD. The elastic constants of MgSiO3 perovskite at pressures and temperatures of the Earth’s mantle. Nature 2001 21;411:934–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Badjic JD, Balzani V, Credi A, Silvi S, Stoddart JF. A molecular elevator. Science 2004 19;303:1845–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Seifert RJ. Profiting from Weekly Options. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2015.
An edited book
Huang X, Zhou J, editors. Information Security Practice and Experience: 10th International Conference, ISPEC 2014, Fuzhou, China, May 5-8, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Portnoy A, Rana P, Zimmermann C, Rodin G. The Use of Palliative Sedation to Treat Existential Suffering: A Reconsideration. In: Taboada P, editor. Sedation at the End-of-life: An Interdisciplinary Approach. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 41–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Direct Brain-To-Brain Communication Used in Humans [Internet]. IFLScience 2014 3 [cited 2018 30];doi:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Challenges in Commercializing Technologies Developed under the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swartz H. The Multitude Speaks in Style: An Analysis of Vernacular Agency through Images of Ruth Bader Ginsburg. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly R. The New Southern Male. New York Times 2000 5;728.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationEur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0934-9723
ISSN (online)1435-4373
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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