How to format your references using the European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pauly D. Obituary: Ransom Aldrich Myers (1952-2007). Nature 2007 10;447:160.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jiang J-H, John S. Photonic architectures for equilibrium high-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation in dichalcogenide monolayers. Sci. Rep. 2014 11;4:7432.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tibi R, Wiens DA, Inoue H. Remote triggering of deep earthquakes in the 2002 Tonga sequences. Nature 2003 21;424:921–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kogar A, Rak MS, Vig S, Husain AA, Flicker F, Joe YI, et al. Signatures of exciton condensation in a transition metal dichalcogenide. Science 2017 8;358:1314–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Denison E, Ren GY. Luke Him Sau Architect. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Krawczyk H, editor. Public-Key Cryptography – PKC 2014: 17th International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 26-28, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Méthot P-O, Alizon S. Emerging Disease and the Evolution of Virulence: The Case of the 1918–1919 Influenza Pandemic. In: Huneman P, Lambert G, Silberstein M, editors. Classification, Disease and Evidence: New Essays in the Philosophy of Medicine. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. p. 93–130.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Fang J. Amphibious Fishes In Hot Water Cool Themselves By Jumping Out [Internet]. IFLScience 2015 22 [cited 2018 30];doi:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Railroad Safety: DOT Faces Challenges in Improving Grade Crossing Safety, Track Inspection Standards, and Passenger Car Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kim G. Development of a nutrition-based curriculum for farm-to-school programs for the fourth and fifth grades. 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Radwanska Upset in Straight Sets. New York Times 2016 6;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationEur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0934-9723
ISSN (online)1435-4373
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

Other styles