How to format your references using the European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Suddendorf T. Behavior. Foresight and evolution of the human mind. Science 2006 19;312:1006–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim SK, Rulifson EJ. Conserved mechanisms of glucose sensing and regulation by Drosophila corpora cardiaca cells. Nature 2004 16;431:316–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
Royer DL, Osborne CP, Beerling DJ. Carbon loss by deciduous trees in a CO2-rich ancient polar environment. Nature 2003 3;424:60–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Leaver M, Domínguez-Cuevas P, Coxhead JM, Daniel RA, Errington J. Life without a wall or division machine in Bacillus subtilis. Nature 2009 12;457:849–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Martin-Flatin J-P. Web-Based Management of IP Networks and Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2002.
An edited book
Ichalkaranje N, Ichalkaranje A, Jain LC, editors. Intelligent Paradigms for Assistive and Preventive Healthcare. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Johnson RG. There and Back Again – Andrew Booth, a British Computer Pioneer, and his Interactions with US and Other Contemporaries. In: Tatnall A, Leslie C, editors. International Communities of Invention and Innovation: IFIP WG 9.7 International Conference on the History of Computing, HC 2016, Brooklyn, NY, USA, May 25-29, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 58–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew D. Running Makes You Smarter – Here’s How [Internet]. IFLScience 2016 1 [cited 2018 30];doi:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Proposed Procedure for Access by GAO to Records of Students in the Murphy School District. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Orbinati AG. Spirituality and learning: An exploration into the understanding of spirituality in adult education. 2015;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF. Mutiny in the Harbor: One Ship Too Many. New York Times 2006 4;14CN6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationEur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0934-9723
ISSN (online)1435-4373
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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