How to format your references using the European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mackman N (2008) Triggers, targets and treatments for thrombosis. Nature 451:914–918
A journal article with 2 authors
Norskov JK, Christensen CH (2006) Chemistry. Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces. Science 312:1322–1323
A journal article with 3 authors
Paniello RC, Day JMD, Moynier F (2012) Zinc isotopic evidence for the origin of the Moon. Nature 490:376–379
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Scott IC, Blitz IL, Pappano WN, et al (2001) Homologues of Twisted gastrulation are extracellular cofactors in antagonism of BMP signalling. Nature 410:475–478

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The American Ceramic Society (2009) Progress in Nanotechnology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Hart WE (2012) Pyomo – Optimization Modeling in Python. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Brady BHG, Brown ET (2004) Pre-mining state of stress. In: Brown ET (ed) Rock Mechanics for underground mining: Third edition. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 142–164

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) From Beyonce The Fly To Darth Vader The Beetle, Naming Species Can Help Save Them. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Department of Transportation: University Research Activities Need Greater Oversight. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Walker D (2017) University Research Adminstrators’ Perception of Incivility and the Relationship to Employee Engagement. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg B (2017) The Skyjacker’s Tale. New York Times C8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
AbbreviationEur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)1018-8827
ISSN (online)1435-165X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Psychiatry and Mental health
Developmental and Educational Psychology

Other styles