How to format your references using the European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Coller HA (2011) Cell biology. The essence of quiescence. Science 334:1074–1075
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan H, Marmorstein R (2013) Biochemistry. Red wine, toast of the town (again). Science 339:1156–1157
A journal article with 3 authors
Valet J-P, Meynadier L, Guyodo Y (2005) Geomagnetic dipole strength and reversal rate over the past two million years. Nature 435:802–805
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cobo I, Martinelli P, Flández M, et al (2018) Transcriptional regulation by NR5A2 links differentiation and inflammation in the pancreas. Nature 554:533–537

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schwarz DR (2014) Reading the European Novel to 1900. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Jin D, Lin S (2012) Advances in Electronic Engineering, Communication and Management Vol.2: Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on Electronic Engineering, Communication and Management (EECM 2011), held on December 24–25, 2011, Beijing, China. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Quan W, Gong X, Fang J, Li J (2015) Error Modeling, Calibration, and Compensation of Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). In: Li J, Gong X, Fang J (eds) INS/CNS/GNSS Integrated Navigation Technology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 75–144

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Over 300 Reindeer Struck Dead By Lightning In Norway. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1990) Space Transportation: NASA Has No Firm Need for Increasingly Costly Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham MM-X (2017) Flymed Pharmacy, LLC, Home Delivery Services a Business Plan. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) Another Dutch Sweep Leaves Americans Baffled. New York Times D3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
AbbreviationEur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry
ISSN (print)1018-8827
ISSN (online)1435-165X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Psychiatry and Mental health
Developmental and Educational Psychology

Other styles