How to format your references using the European Cells & Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Cells & Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
King M-C (2014) “The race” to clone BRCA1. Science 343: 1462–1465.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klausberger T, Somogyi P (2008) Neuronal diversity and temporal dynamics: the unity of hippocampal circuit operations. Science 321: 53–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schott D, Yanai I, Hunter CP (2014) Natural RNA interference directs a heritable response to the environment. Sci. Rep. 4: 7387.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Roberts JM, Osthoff HD, Brown SS, Ravishankara AR (2008) N2O5 oxidizes chloride to Cl2 in acidic atmospheric aerosol. Science 321: 1059.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cazdyn E, Szeman I (2011) After Globalization. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, April 15.
An edited book
Bee MA, Miller CT eds. (2016) Psychological Mechanisms in Animal Communication. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Vol. 5. Animal Signals and Communication.
A chapter in an edited book
Pelekis C, Schauer M (2013) Network Coloring and Colored Coin Games. In Search Theory: A Game Theoretic Perspective, ed. Steve Alpern, Robbert Fokkink, Leszek Gąsieniec, Roy Lindelauf, V. S. Subrahmanian, 59–73. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Cells & Materials.

Blog post
Davis J (2017) Genetic Study Reveals The Surprising Ancestry Of Ancient Egyptians. IFLScience. IFLScience, May 30.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Changes Needed in the Tax Laws Governing the Exclusion for Scholarships and Fellowships and the Deduction of Job-Related Educational Expenses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, October 31.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leal LS (2016) Pair correlations in clean magnetic Josephson junctions. Doctoral dissertation; Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ember S (2016) After 11 Years, The Huffington Post Will No Longer Be Run by Huffington. New York Times, August 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (King, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (King, 2014; Klausberger and Somogyi, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Klausberger and Somogyi, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Roberts et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Cells & Materials
AbbreviationEur. Cell. Mater.
ISSN (print)1473-2262
Cell Biology
Biomedical Engineering

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