How to format your references using the European Cells & Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Cells & Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hamer D (2002) Genetics. Rethinking behavior genetics. Science 298: 71–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Daw R, Tonzani S (2009) Biomaterials. Nature 462: 425.
A journal article with 3 authors
DasGupta S, Ferreira CH, Miesenböck G (2014) FoxP influences the speed and accuracy of a perceptual decision in Drosophila. Science 344: 901–904.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wu X, Yang Z-Y, Li Y, Hogerkorp C-M, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O’Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ, Mascola JR (2010) Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Science 329: 856–861.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Reason B, Løvlie L, Brand Flu M (2015) Service Design for Business. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, December 14.
An edited book
Milano G, Grasso A eds. (2014) Shoulder Arthroscopy: Principles and Practice. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Blauert J, Xiang N (2009) Magnetic-Field Transducers. In Acoustics for Engineers: Troy Lectures, ed. Ning Xiang, 55–69. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Cells & Materials.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) The Year Coal Collapsed: 2016 Was A Turning Point For Britain’s Electricity. IFLScience. IFLScience, January 10.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) University Finances: Research Revenues and Expenditures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, July 11.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Necaise KW (2012) Effects of soybean-derived phytoestrogens on reproductive tract development in neonatal male and female pigs: Animal model for the human infant. Doctoral dissertation; Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George T (2016) Thumbelina’s Secret Architect. New York Times, July 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hamer, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Daw and Tonzani, 2009; Hamer, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Daw and Tonzani, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Wu et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Cells & Materials
AbbreviationEur. Cell. Mater.
ISSN (print)1473-2262
Cell Biology
Biomedical Engineering

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