How to format your references using the European Cells & Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Cells & Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sassone-Corsi P (2013) Physiology. When metabolism and epigenetics converge. Science 339: 148–150.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohlstein B, Spradling A (2006) The adult Drosophila posterior midgut is maintained by pluripotent stem cells. Nature 439: 470–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gottfried JA, O’Doherty J, Dolan RJ (2003) Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Science 301: 1104–1107.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Holland ND, Clague DA, Gordon DP, Gebruk A, Pawson DL, Vecchione M (2005) “Lophenteropneust” hypothesis refuted by collection and photos of new deep-sea hemichordates. Nature 434: 374–376.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wiens JA (2016) Ecological Challenges and Conservation Conundrums. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, May 2.
An edited book
Vinh PC, Hung NM, Tung NT, Suzuki J eds. (2013) Context-Aware Systems and Applications: First International Conference, ICCASA 2012, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, November 26-27, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. Vol. 109. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering.
A chapter in an edited book
Stöhr J (2012) Prion Protein Aggregation and FibrillogenesisIn Vitro. In Protein Aggregation and Fibrillogenesis in Cerebral and Systemic Amyloid Disease, ed. J. Robin Harris, 91–108. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Subcellular Biochemistry.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Cells & Materials.

Blog post
Evans K (2016) 7 Things In Your Daily Life That You Didn’t Know Were Based On NASA Innovations. IFLScience. IFLScience, December 6.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1978) Federal Capitation Support and Its Role in the Operation of Medical Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hong AN (2017) A Diastereomeric Strategy in the Construction of Homochiral Metal-Organic Architectures. Doctoral dissertation; Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee L (2009) Low-Upkeep Gardens, but Not Dirt Cheap. New York Times, September 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sassone-Corsi, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Ohlstein and Spradling, 2006; Sassone-Corsi, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ohlstein and Spradling, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Holland et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Cells & Materials
AbbreviationEur. Cell. Mater.
ISSN (print)1473-2262
Cell Biology
Biomedical Engineering

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