How to format your references using the European Cells & Materials citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Cells & Materials. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nossal GJV (2003) The double helix and immunology. Nature 421: 440–444.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhang X, Zhao M (2014) Strain-induced phase transition and electron spin-polarization in graphene spirals. Sci. Rep. 4: 5699.
A journal article with 3 authors
Campbell C, Shea K, Albert R (2014) Network models. Comment on “Control profiles of complex networks.” Science 346: 561.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Matsuzawa A, Tseng P-H, Vallabhapurapu S, Luo J-L, Zhang W, Wang H, Vignali DAA, Gallagher E, Karin M (2008) Essential cytoplasmic translocation of a cytokine receptor-assembled signaling complex. Science 321: 663–668.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaplan W (1998) Maxima and Minima with Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., December 23.
An edited book
Navarra A, Tubiana L eds. (2013) Regional Assessment of Climate Change in the Mediterranean: Volume 2: Agriculture, Forests and Ecosystem Services and People. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Vol. 51. Advances in Global Change Research.
A chapter in an edited book
Dovey J, Furrow A (2012) Objective-C Language Features. In Beginning Objective-C, ed. Ash Furrow, 75–105. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Cells & Materials.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) This Gene Gave Mosquitoes The Taste For Human Blood. IFLScience. IFLScience, November 13.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Airport Privatization: Issues Related to the Sale of U.S. Commercial Airports. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, February 29.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maddox CE (2012) Postcolonial play: Encounters with sport and physical culture in contemporary India. Doctoral dissertation; College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) Rematch 45 Years In the Making. New York Times, January 6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nossal, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Nossal, 2003; Zhang and Zhao, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zhang and Zhao, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Matsuzawa et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Cells & Materials
AbbreviationEur. Cell. Mater.
ISSN (print)1473-2262
Cell Biology
Biomedical Engineering

Other styles