How to format your references using the Ethnicity & Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnicity & Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cunningham, Tshaka. 2004. “Graduate Journal: Show Us the Money!” Nature 429 (6994): 906.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yewdell, Jonathan W., and William L. Ince. 2012. “Virology. Frameshifting to PA-X Influenza.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6091): 164–165.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saikia, Ashima, Daniel J. Frost, and David C. Rubie. 2008. “Splitting of the 520-Kilometer Seismic Discontinuity and Chemical Heterogeneity in the Mantle.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5869): 1515–1518.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Frederick, Kendra King, Michael S. Marlow, Kathleen G. Valentine, and A. Joshua Wand. 2007. “Conformational Entropy in Molecular Recognition by Proteins.” Nature 448 (7151): 325–329.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt, Paul, Rolf Körber, and Matthias Coppers. 2003. Sieben Und Siebmaschinen. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Denaro, Luca, Domenico D’Avella, and Vincenzo Denaro, eds. 2010. Pitfalls in Cervical Spine Surgery: Avoidance and Management of Complications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abidi, Khalid, and Jian-Xin Xu. 2015. “Discrete-Time Iterative Learning Control.” In Advanced Discrete-Time Control: Designs and Applications, edited by Jian-Xin Xu, 109–144. Studies in Systems, Decision and Control. Singapore: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnicity & Health.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “How Leatherback Sea Turtles Keep Their Muscles Warm In Frigid Waters.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Higher Education: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Trends and the Role of Federal Programs. GAO-06-702T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldner, Virginia Rae. 2010. “Arizona Nurses’ Attitudes toward Legislated Minimum Staffing Ratios: Impact on the Workplace.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED, Michael J. 2017. “SoftBank Leads Big Stake In Virtual-Reality Designer.” New York Times, May 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cunningham 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Cunningham 2004; Yewdell and Ince 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yewdell and Ince 2012)
  • Three authors: (Saikia, Frost, and Rubie 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Frederick et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnicity & Health
AbbreviationEthn. Health
ISSN (print)1355-7858
ISSN (online)1465-3419
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Cultural Studies

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