How to format your references using the Ethnicity & Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnicity & Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tanabe, Kazushige. 2011. “Paleontology. The Feeding Habits of Ammonites.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6013): 37–38.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang, Z. X., and P. R. Schleyer. 2001. “Construction Principles of ‘Hyparenes’: Families of Molecules with Planar Pentacoordinate Carbons.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5526): 2465–2469.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huber, Daniel, Pierre Veinante, and Ron Stoop. 2005. “Vasopressin and Oxytocin Excite Distinct Neuronal Populations in the Central Amygdala.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5719): 245–248.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hart, Robert J., Lauren Lawres, Emma Fritzen, Choukri Ben Mamoun, and Ahmed S. I. Aly. 2014. “Plasmodium Yoelii Vitamin B5 Pantothenate Transporter Candidate Is Essential for Parasite Transmission to the Mosquito.” Scientific Reports 4 (July): 5665.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wolf, Edward L., and Manasa Medikonda. 2012. Understanding the Nanotechnology Revolution. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Stanley, William. 2009. Software Verification and Analysis: An Integrated, Hands-On Approach. Edited by Janusz Laski. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Moss, Scott. 2009. “Talking about ABSS: Functional Descriptions of Models.” In Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences: Second International Workshop, EPOS 2006, Brescia, Italy, October 5-6, 2006, Revised Selected and Invited Papers, edited by Flaminio Squazzoni, 48–59. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnicity & Health.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “Archaeologists Announce Discovery Of A 3,700 Year-Old Pyramid In Egypt.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. NHTSA: Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and Occupant Crash Protection. OGC-97-33. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ports, Michael O. 2009. “Laterally Associated Proteins Modulate Α6 Integrin Cleavage, a Permissive Process Utilized during Cancer Metastasis.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, Mary J. O. 2016. “130 Years Ago: ‘War and Peace’ Finally Published in English.” New York Times, January 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tanabe 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Tanabe 2011; Wang and Schleyer 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wang and Schleyer 2001)
  • Three authors: (Huber, Veinante, and Stoop 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hart et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnicity & Health
AbbreviationEthn. Health
ISSN (print)1355-7858
ISSN (online)1465-3419
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Cultural Studies

Other styles