How to format your references using the Ethnicity & Health citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ethnicity & Health. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Domning, D. P. 2001. “The Earliest Known Fully Quadrupedal Sirenian.” Nature 413 (6856): 625–627.
A journal article with 2 authors
Casasanto, Daniel, and Peter Gordon. 2005. “Crying ‘Whorf.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5716): 1721–1722.
A journal article with 3 authors
Maduwage, Kalana, Margaret A. O’Leary, and Geoffrey K. Isbister. 2014. “Diagnosis of Snake Envenomation Using a Simple Phospholipase A2 Assay.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4827.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, L. X., W. J. Jäger, G. Jennings, D. J. Gosztola, A. Munkholm, and J. P. Hessler. 2001. “Capturing a Photoexcited Molecular Structure through Time-Domain x-Ray Absorption Fine Structure.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5515): 262–264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adams, Dave J., Paul J. Dyson, and Stewart J. Tavener. 2005. Chemistry in Alternative Reaction Media. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bandt, Olivier de, Thomas Knetsch, Juan Peñalosa, and Francesco Zollino, eds. 2010. Housing Markets in Europe: A Macroeconomic Perspective. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Paolicchi, F., and P. Marcheschi. 2008. “I Sistemi PACS, HIS e RIS.” In Produrre Ed Elaborare Immagini Diagnostiche, edited by Paolo Marcheschi and Davide Caramella, 43–49. Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ethnicity & Health.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Collapsed Ice Lake Led to Catastrophic Martian Flood.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1975. Management of the Community Action Against Addiction Program in Cleveland, Ohio. MWD-75-92. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, Duc. 2009. “Deus-Ex-Machina: A Modern Skeptic’s Relentless Scrutiny of the Production of Ethics in Post-Colonial Literature and Postcolonialism.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dobbins, James. 2017. “Making a Living on Airbnb.” New York Times, April 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Domning 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Domning 2001; Casasanto and Gordon 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Casasanto and Gordon 2005)
  • Three authors: (Maduwage, O’Leary, and Isbister 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleEthnicity & Health
AbbreviationEthn. Health
ISSN (print)1355-7858
ISSN (online)1465-3419
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
Cultural Studies

Other styles