How to format your references using the Epigenetics & Chromatin citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epigenetics & Chromatin. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Koen D. Nuts and bolts. Nature. 2003;426:588.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pujolle-Robic C, Noirez L. Observation of shear-induced nematic-isotropic transition in side-chain liquid crystal polymers. Nature. 2001;409:167–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lemos B, Araripe LO, Hartl DL. Polymorphic Y chromosomes harbor cryptic variation with manifold functional consequences. Science. 2008;319:91–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Matamala R, Gonzàlez-Meler MA, Jastrow JD, Norby RJ, Schlesinger WH. Impacts of fine root turnover on forest NPP and soil C sequestration potential. Science. 2003;302:1385–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Flynn MJ, Luk W. Computer System Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Dong S, Kassam K-AS, Tourrand JF, Boone RB, editors. Building Resilience of Human-Natural Systems of Pastoralism in the Developing World: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dormann C, van de Ven B. Timing in Methods for Studying Psychosocial Factors at Work. In: Dollard MF, Shimazu A, Bin Nordin R, Brough P, Tuckey MR, editors. Psychosocial Factors at Work in the Asia Pacific. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014. p. 89–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epigenetics & Chromatin.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Catastrophic Antelope Death Rates Are Higher And More Mysterious Than Previously Thought [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. In-Flight Escape Systems for Helicopters Should Be Developed To Prevent Fatalities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Jun. Report No.: B-177166.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Arnold DM. An Examination of Job Satisfaction Among Full-Time Faculty in a Selected Mississippi Community College [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Leland J. Glimpses of Vanishing Harlem. New York Times. 2017 Mar 9;MB7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEpigenetics & Chromatin
AbbreviationEpigenetics Chromatin
ISSN (online)1756-8935
Molecular Biology

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