How to format your references using the Epidemiology & Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemiology & Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lazar MA. Developmental biology. How now, brown fat? Science (New York, N.Y.) 2008; 321: 1048–1049.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pérez-Gussinyé M, Watts AB. The long-term strength of Europe and its implications for plate-forming processes. Nature 2005; 436: 381–384.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu Y, Huang L, Cao L. Semiconductor solar superabsorbers. Scientific reports 2014; 4: 4107.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ren M, et al. Insulin-producing cells from embryonic stem cells rescues hyperglycemia via intra-spleen migration. Scientific reports 2014; 4: 7586.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
van Deventer DR, Imai K, Mesler M. Advanced Financial Risk Management, Second Edition. Solaris South Tower, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd., 2013.
An edited book
Zavarise G, Wriggers P, editors. Trends in Computational Contact Mechanics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Dudgeon R. Emergency Medical Services. In: Wolfson N, Lerner A, Roshal L, eds. Orthopedics in Disasters: Orthopedic Injuries in Natural Disasters and Mass Casualty Events. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2016, p. 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemiology & Infection.

Blog post
Fang J. Survey Finds 361 New Bird Species - And A Quarter Are Already Threatened. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2014( Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commercial Aviation: Bankruptcy and Pension Problems Are Symptoms of Underlying Structural Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005 Sep. Report No.: GAO-05-945.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fountain JM. Differences in Generational Work Values in America and Their Implications for Educational Leadership: A Longitudinal Test of Twenge’s Model [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Characters Welcome. New York Times. 2011; : ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemiology & Infection
AbbreviationEpidemiol. Infect.
ISSN (print)0950-2688
ISSN (online)1469-4409
Infectious Diseases

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