How to format your references using the Epidemiology & Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemiology & Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilson TD. Behavior. The power of social psychological interventions. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2006; 313: 1251–1252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen D, Savidge T. BIOPHYSICS. Comment on ‘Extreme electric fields power catalysis in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase’. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2015; 349: 936.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lape R, Colquhoun D, Sivilotti LG. On the nature of partial agonism in the nicotinic receptor superfamily. Nature 2008; 454: 722–727.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Johansson LI, et al. Multiple π-bands and Bernal stacking of multilayer graphene on C-face SiC, revealed by nano-Angle Resolved Photoemission. Scientific reports 2014; 4: 4157.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Simiu E. Design of Buildings for Wind. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.
An edited book
Tilkemeier PL, et al., editors. Quality Evaluation in Non-Invasive Cardiovascular Imaging. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Interdonato R, Tagarelli A. To Trust or Not to Trust Lurkers?: Evaluation of Lurking and Trustworthiness in Ranking Problems. In: Wierzbicki A et al., eds. Advances in Network Science: 12th International Conference and School, NetSci-X 2016, Wroclaw, Poland, January 11-13, 2016, Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, p. 43–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemiology & Infection.

Blog post
Andrew E. Antibiotic Resistance Doesn’t Just Make Bacteria Harder To Kill – It Can Actually Make Them Stronger. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2015( Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Current National Issues Involving Science and Technology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979 Nov. Report No.: 094310.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wang B. An Embedded Method for Near-Wellbore Streamline Simulation [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly RW. Quotation of the Day. New York Times. 2009; : A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemiology & Infection
AbbreviationEpidemiol. Infect.
ISSN (print)0950-2688
ISSN (online)1469-4409
Infectious Diseases

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