How to format your references using the Epidemiology & Infection citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Epidemiology & Infection. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Welcome competition. Nature 2004; 432: 783.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duman RS, Aghajanian GK. Synaptic dysfunction in depression: potential therapeutic targets. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2012; 338: 68–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chuck AL, Turner SM, Liss PS. Direct evidence for a marine source of C1 and C2 alkyl nitrates. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2002; 297: 1151–1154.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen K-Y, et al. Changes in regulation of a transcription factor lead to autogamy in cultivated tomatoes. Science (New York, N.Y.) 2007; 318: 643–645.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keene A. Keene on the Market. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Sanders CL, editor. Radiation Hormesis and the Linear-No-Threshold Assumption. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Ketelhut DJ, Clarke J, Nelson BC. The Development of River City, a Multi-User Virtual Environment-Based Scientific Inquiry Curriculum: Historical and Design Evolutions. In: Jacobson MJ, Reimann P, eds. Designs for Learning Environments of the Future: International Perspectives from the Learning Sciences. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2010, p. 89–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Epidemiology & Infection.

Blog post
Andrew D. How Forensic Science Can Unlock The Mysteries Of Human Evolution. IFLScience. IFLScience, 2017( Accessed 30 October 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Relaxation of the Common Failure Rate Assumption in Modelling Software Reliability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986 Jan. Report No.: 130464.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Simon-Owens NL. Southern Virginia Higher Education Center: An exploration of factors affecting organizational leadership [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW, Corkery M, Davis JH. White House Will Offer Plan to Help Puerto Rico. New York Times. 2015; : B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEpidemiology & Infection
AbbreviationEpidemiol. Infect.
ISSN (print)0950-2688
ISSN (online)1469-4409
Infectious Diseases

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