How to format your references using the Environmental Science & Technology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Science & Technology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gandy, S. Perspective: Prevention Is Better than Cure. Nature 2011, 475 (7355), S15.
A journal article with 2 authors
Greenwood, B.; Owusu-Agyei, S. Epidemiology. Malaria in the Post-Genome Era. Science 2012, 338 (6103), 49–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Allesina, S.; Alonso, D.; Pascual, M. A General Model for Food Web Structure. Science 2008, 320 (5876), 658–661.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hunt, D. E.; David, L. A.; Gevers, D.; Preheim, S. P.; Alm, E. J.; Polz, M. F. Resource Partitioning and Sympatric Differentiation among Closely Related Bacterioplankton. Science 2008, 320 (5879), 1081–1085.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ventre, D. Information Warfare; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
Assessment Reform in Science: Fairness and Fear; Yung, B. H. W., Ed.; Science & Technology Education Library; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006; Vol. 31.
A chapter in an edited book
Cohen, J. L.; Beer, K. Botulinum Toxins. In Facial Rejuvenation: A Total Approach; Goldberg, D. J., Ed.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp 79–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Science & Technology Letters.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Mushrooms Capable of Generating Wind to Distribute Spores (accessed 2018 -10 -30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD and VA: Systematic Data Sharing Would Help Expedite Servicemembers’ Transition to VA Services; GAO-05-722T; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clark, K. N. Institutions and Self-Governing Social Systems: Linking Reflexivity and Institutional Theories for Cybersecurity and Other Commons Governance Policies. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. One Bowl That Counts And 34 Others. New York Times. December 10, 2010, p B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Science & Technology Letters
AbbreviationEnviron. Sci. Technol. Lett.
ISSN (online)2328-8930

Other styles