How to format your references using the Environmental Science & Technology Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Science & Technology Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hendrix, M. J. C. Cancer: An Extravascular Route for Tumour Cells. Nature 2015, 520 (7547), 300–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Medina-Elizalde, M.; Rohling, E. J. Collapse of Classic Maya Civilization Related to Modest Reduction in Precipitation. Science 2012, 335 (6071), 956–959.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jia, S.; Noma, K.-I.; Grewal, S. I. S. RNAi-Independent Heterochromatin Nucleation by the Stress-Activated ATF/CREB Family Proteins. Science 2004, 304 (5679), 1971–1976.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Falk, D.; Hildebolt, C.; Smith, K.; Morwood, M. J.; Sutikna, T.; Brown, P.; Jatmiko; Saptomo, E. W.; Brunsden, B.; Prior, F. The Brain of LB1, Homo Floresiensis. Science 2005, 308 (5719), 242–245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abu-Jamous, B.; Fa, R.; Nandi, A. K. Integrative Cluster Analysis in Bioinformatics; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2015.
An edited book
SIKU: Knowing Our Ice: Documenting Inuit Sea Ice Knowledge and Use; Krupnik, I., Aporta, C., Gearheard, S., Laidler, G. J., Kielsen Holm, L., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Christaller, T. Artificial Intelligence Is Engineering Intelligence – Why Should We Care About Natural Intelligence? In KI 2007: Advances in Artificial Intelligence: 30th Annual German Conference on AI, KI 2007, Osnabrück, Germany, September 10-13, 2007. Proceedings; Hertzberg, J., Beetz, M., Englert, R., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007; pp 43–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Science & Technology Letters.

Blog post
Taub, B. This Is How Stress Damages Your Brain (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Summary of Selected GAO Reports; GGD-96-193R; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De Felice, D. A Phenomenological Study of Teaching Endangered Languages Online: Perspectives from Nahua and Mayan Educators. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida: Tampa, FL, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, B. The Surveillance State of Denmark. New York Times. July 24, 2017, p C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Science & Technology Letters
AbbreviationEnviron. Sci. Technol. Lett.
ISSN (online)2328-8930

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