How to format your references using the Environmental Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pfau, T. Atom Optics. Continuous Progress on Atom Lasers. Science 2002, 296 (5576), 2155–2156.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mota, B.; Herculano-Houzel, S. BRAIN STRUCTURE. Cortical Folding Scales Universally with Surface Area and Thickness, Not Number of Neurons. Science 2015, 349 (6243), 74–77.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yelshanskaya, M. V.; Li, M.; Sobolevsky, A. I. Structure of an Agonist-Bound Ionotropic Glutamate Receptor. Science 2014, 345 (6200), 1070–1074.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hong, B.; Gasse, F.; Uchida, M.; Hong, Y.; Leng, X.; Shibata, Y.; An, N.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Y. Increasing Summer Rainfall in Arid Eastern-Central Asia over the Past 8500 Years. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 5279.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kolb, R. W. Sovereign Debt; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
Ford, R. Earth System Modelling - Volume 5: Tools for Configuring, Building and Running Models; Riley, G., Budich, R., Redler, R., Eds.; SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Faruqi, A. A.; Bryant, W. A.; Pinney, J. W. Analysis of Metabolic Evolution in Bacteria Using Whole-Genome Metabolic Models. In Research in Computational Molecular Biology: 17th Annual International Conference, RECOMB 2013, Beijing, China, April 7-10, 2013. Proceedings; Deng, M., Jiang, R., Sun, F., Zhang, X., Eds.; Hutchison, D., Kanade, T., Kittler, J., Kleinberg, J. M., Mattern, F., Mitchell, J. C., Naor, M., Nierstrasz, O., Pandu Rangan, C., Steffen, B., et al., Series Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp 45–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Science & Technology.

Blog post
Andrew, D. From Dark Gravity To Phantom Energy: What’s Driving The Expansion Of The Universe? (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Cost Effectiveness of an Education Assistance Program (GI Bill) as a Recruiting Incentive Is Unknown; FPCD-82-12; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ekici, T. An Investigation of Credit Card Debt: The Effect of Price and Income Expectations and the Impact on Consumption. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart, J. B. Tax Cuts Are Easy, but a Tax Overhaul? Three Proposals to Make the Math Work. New York Times. October 5, 2017, p B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Science & Technology
AbbreviationEnviron. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0013-936X
ISSN (online)1520-5851
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry

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