How to format your references using the Environmental Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pearce, J. M. Physics: Make Nanotechnology Research Open-Source. Nature 2012, 491 (7425), 519–521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chang, E. F.; Merzenich, M. M. Environmental Noise Retards Auditory Cortical Development. Science 2003, 300 (5618), 498–502.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dwyer, M. A.; Looger, L. L.; Hellinga, H. W. Computational Design of a Biologically Active Enzyme. Science 2004, 304 (5679), 1967–1971.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, L.; Lin, R. P.; Larson, D. E.; Luhmann, J. G. Domination of Heliosheath Pressure by Shock-Accelerated Pickup Ions from Observations of Neutral Atoms. Nature 2008, 454 (7200), 81–83.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Liu, S.; Liu, Y. Modeling and Simulation for Microelectronic Packaging Assembly; John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd: Singapore, 2011.
An edited book
Alber, Y. Nonlinear Ill-Posed Problems of Monotone Type; Ryazantseva, I., Ed.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Thiagalingam, S.; Faller, D. V. The Cancer Epigenome. In Molecular Targeting in Oncology; Kaufman, H. L., Wadler, S., Antman, K., Eds.; Cancer Drug Discovery and Development; Humana Press: Totowa, NJ, 2008; pp 97–113.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Science & Technology.

Blog post
Taub, B. British Politicians Say There Is Strong Evidence For Legalizing Medical Marijuana (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Controls Over Computer-Generated Output at the Naval Supply Center, Oakland; 092817; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, A. E. Gas Hydrate-Filled Fracture Reservoirs on Continental Margins. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York, NY, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. Exxon Misled the Public on the Risks of Climate Change, a Study Says. New York Times. August 23, 2017, p B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Science & Technology
AbbreviationEnviron. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0013-936X
ISSN (online)1520-5851
ScopeGeneral Chemistry
Environmental Chemistry

Other styles