How to format your references using the Environmental Modeling & Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Modeling & Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hyman, S. E. (2014). Perspective: Revealing molecular secrets. Nature, 508(7494), S20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dekel, E., & Alon, U. (2005). Optimality and evolutionary tuning of the expression level of a protein. Nature, 436(7050), 588–592.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reynolds, A. M., Leprêtre, L., & Bohan, D. A. (2013). Movement patterns of Tenebrio beetles demonstrate empirically that correlated-random-walks have similitude with a Lévy walk. Scientific reports, 3, 3158.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Tomaru, Y., Toyoda, K., Suzuki, H., Nagumo, T., Kimura, K., & Takao, Y. (2013). New single-stranded DNA virus with a unique genomic structure that infects marine diatom Chaetoceros setoensis. Scientific reports, 3, 3337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Marti, P. (2014). Baustatik. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Issadore, D., & Westervelt, R. M. (Eds.). (2013). Point-of-Care Diagnostics on a Chip. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mather, J. N. (2011). On the Homology of Haefliger’s Classifying Space. In V. Villani (Ed.), Differential Topology (pp. 71–116). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Modeling & Assessment.

Blog post
Andrews, R. (2016, July 20). This Harpoon Is Being “Fired” Into People’s Hearts To Save Their Lives. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Air Quality Planning Processes at Selected Airports (No. RCED-94-197R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rutherford, B. A. (2017). Beneficial Tensile Mean Strain Effects on the Fatigue Behavior of Superelastic NiTi (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. (2016, November 13). Waiting for a Pastor, Not a Prince. New York Times, p. A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Modeling & Assessment
AbbreviationEnviron. Model. Assess.
ISSN (print)1420-2026
ISSN (online)1573-2967
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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