How to format your references using the Environmental Modeling & Assessment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Modeling & Assessment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shendure, J. (2010). Journal club. A geneticist discusses a way to assess the effects of disease-causing gene mutations. Nature, 463(7280), 405.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stolow, A., & Jonas, D. M. (2004). Chemistry. Multidimensional snapshots of chemical dynamics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5690), 1575–1577.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouse, G. W., Goffredi, S. K., & Vrijenhoek, R. C. (2004). Osedax: bone-eating marine worms with dwarf males. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5684), 668–671.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Acharya, U., Patel, S., Koundakjian, E., Nagashima, K., Han, X., & Acharya, J. K. (2003). Modulating sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway rescues photoreceptor degeneration. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5613), 1740–1743.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahinoglu, M. (2016). Cyber-Risk Informatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Osipov, A. (2013). Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions of Order Zero: Mathematical Tools for Bandlimited Approximation. (V. Rokhlin & H. Xiao, Eds.) (Vol. 187). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Jain, A., Veggetti, A., Crippa, D., & Rolandi, P. (2011). An On-Chip Flip-Flop Characterization Circuit. In R. van Leuken & G. Sicard (Eds.), Integrated Circuit and System Design. Power and Timing Modeling, Optimization, and Simulation: 20th International Workshop, PATMOS 2010, Grenoble, France, September 7-10, 2010, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 41–50). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Modeling & Assessment.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 16). Philae Lander Runs Out Of Battery And Enters Deep Sleep. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). Exchange Programs: Inventory of International Educational, Cultural, and Training Programs (No. NSIAD-93-157BR). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zanulabe Din, M. O. (2017). Engineered Synchrony of Bacterial Lysis and its Applications (Doctoral dissertation). University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kovaleski, S. F. (2016, March 31). Tracking an Elusive Diary From Hitler’s Inner Circle. New York Times, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Modeling & Assessment
AbbreviationEnviron. Model. Assess.
ISSN (print)1420-2026
ISSN (online)1573-2967
ScopeGeneral Environmental Science

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