How to format your references using the Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2004). Back on track? Nature, 430(6997), 381.
A journal article with 2 authors
Simpson, S. J., & Travis, J. (2007). Testing our defenses. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5838), 611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roberts, J. M., Wheeler, A. J., & Freiwald, A. (2006). Reefs of the deep: the biology and geology of cold-water coral ecosystems. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5773), 543–547.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Toomey, D. R., Jousselin, D., Dunn, R. A., Wilcock, W. S. D., & Detrick, R. S. (2007). Skew of mantle upwelling beneath the East Pacific Rise governs segmentation. Nature, 446(7134), 409–414.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wagner-Martin, L. (2012). A History of American Literature. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
An edited book
Capitelli, M. (2016). Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Kinetics (R. Celiberto, G. Colonna, F. Esposito, C. Gorse, K. Hassouni, A. Laricchiuta, & S. Longo, Eds.; 1st ed. 2016, Vol. 85). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Armani, F., Boscolo, A., Bressanutti, M., Dalle Feste, M., Piuzzi, B., De Vecchi, A., Viviani, E., & Zweyer, M. (2015). Development of a Novel Snom Probe for in Liquid Biological Samples. In D. Compagnone, F. Baldini, C. Di Natale, G. Betta, & P. Siciliano (Eds.), Sensors: Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Sensors, Rome 19-21 February, 2014 (pp. 23–26). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2016, May 9). The Greatest Taboo? The Surprising Truth Of What The Bible Says About Incest. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Substitution of Shore Leave for Sick Leave (B-171947). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salam, S. (2017). Interplay between Fines Content and Strength Characteristics of CA 6 and CA 2 Crushed Limestone Aggregate [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Paulson, M. (2017, June 13). Friends, Romans, Presidents. New York Times, C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Simpson & Travis, 2007; Smaglik, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Simpson & Travis, 2007)
  • Three authors: (Roberts et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Toomey et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture
ISSN (print)1752-4032
ISSN (online)1752-4040
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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