How to format your references using the Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aldhous, P. (2000). Global warming could be bad news for Arctic ozone layer. Nature, 404(6778), 531.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ranero, C. R., & von Huene R. (2000). Subduction erosion along the Middle America convergent margin. Nature, 404(6779), 748–752.
A journal article with 3 authors
Männikkö, R., Elinder, F., & Larsson, H. P. (2002). Voltage-sensing mechanism is conserved among ion channels gated by opposite voltages. Nature, 419(6909), 837–841.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Maekawa, A., Pei, Z., Suzuki, M., Fukuda, H., Ono, Y., Kondo, S., … Kanegae, Y. (2013). Efficient production of adenovirus vector lacking genes of virus-associated RNAs that disturb cellular RNAi machinery. Scientific Reports, 3, 1136.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Burnham, D., & Skilleås, O. M. (2012). The Aesthetics of Wine. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hermann, A., Sitdikova, G. F., & Weiger, T. M. (Eds.). (2012). Gasotransmitters: Physiology and Pathophysiology. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gigengack, F., Jiang, X., Dawood, M., & Schäfers, K. P. (2015). Further Developments in PET Motion Correction. In X. Jiang, M. Dawood, & K. P. Schäfers (Eds.), Motion Correction in Thoracic Positron Emission Tomography (pp. 75–80). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 17). Rising CO2 Levels Are Changing How Fast Forests Cycle Water. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1976). Information on the Requirement for Strategic Airlift (No. PSAD-76-148). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ochoa-Bontemps, R. S. (2012). Rebuilding the Broken Mirror: An Imaginal Approach to the Multicultural Self (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E. (1994, August 14). PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times, p. 139.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aldhous, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Aldhous, 2000; Ranero & von Huene R, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ranero & von Huene R, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Männikkö, Elinder, & Larsson, 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Maekawa et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture
ISSN (print)1752-4032
ISSN (online)1752-4040
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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