How to format your references using the Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R. F. (2000). ELECTRONIC OPTICS: Organic Lasers Promise New Lease on Light. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5479), 519–521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sorger, V. J., & Zhang, X. (2011). Physics. Spotlight on plasmon lasers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6043), 709–710.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goossen, L. J., Deng, G., & Levy, L. M. (2006). Synthesis of biaryls via catalytic decarboxylative coupling. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5787), 662–664.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Catalanotto, C., Azzalin, G., Macino, G., & Cogoni, C. (2000). Gene silencing in worms and fungi. Nature, 404(6775), 245.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hahn, A., Behle, B., Lischewski, D., & Rein, W. (2002). Produktionstechnische Praxis. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Al-Khalili, J., & Roeckl, E. (Eds.). (2006). The Euroschool Lectures on Physics with Exotic Beams, Vol. II (Vol. 700). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Lang, J. E., Cleveland, R. H., Palm, K., Mardis, N., Lee, E. Y., & Khatwa, U. (2012). Congenital and Miscellaneous Abnormalities. In R. H. Cleveland (Ed.), Imaging in Pediatric Pulmonology (pp. 39–56). Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2016, April 25). Gene For Beak Size In Darwin’s Finches Identified. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Reply to the Health, Education, and Welfare on Recommendations Made in the GAO Report to the Congress (B-117604(7)). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yasa, S. R. (2017). Visual Basic Simulation of H2S Removal from Natural Gas at Downhole in an Extraction Well [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Shpigel, B. (2017, March 20). Pro Football; Jets Sign McCown. New York Times, B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Service, 2000; Sorger & Zhang, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sorger & Zhang, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Goossen et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Catalanotto et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnvironmental Communication: A Journal of Nature and Culture
ISSN (print)1752-4032
ISSN (online)1752-4040
ScopeEnvironmental Science (miscellaneous)
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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