# How to format your references using the Environment and Planning D, Society & Space citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Environment and Planning D, Society & Space. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

## Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

## Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schneier B, 2001, “Protecting privacy and liberty” Nature 413(6858) 773
A journal article with 2 authors
Kleizen B, Braakman I, 2013, “Cell biology. A sweet send-off” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340(6135) 930–931
A journal article with 3 authors
Malinowski J T, Sharpe R J, Johnson J S, 2013, “Enantioselective synthesis of pactamycin, a complex antitumor antibiotic” Science (New York, N.Y.) 340(6129) 180–182
A journal article with 21 or more authors
Guy J, Gan J, Selfridge J, Cobb S, Bird A, 2007, “Reversal of neurological defects in a mouse model of Rett syndrome” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315(5815) 1143–1147

## Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Héno R, Chandelier L, 2014 3D Modeling of Buildings (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ)
An edited book
Zajda J, Davies L, Majhanovich S eds, 2008 Comparative and Global Pedagogies: Equity, Access and Democracy in Education (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht)
A chapter in an edited book
Orlov Y V, Aguilar L T, 2014, “Nonlinear $$\mathcal{H}_{\infty }$$ Control”, in Advanced H∞ Control: Towards Nonsmooth Theory and Applications Ed L T Aguilar (Springer, New York, NY), pp 55–63

## Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Environment and Planning D, Society & Space.

Blog post
Fang J, 2014, “Early Cretaceous Bloodsucking Bugs Found in China” IFLScience, https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/early-cretaceous-bloodsucking-bugs-found-china/

## Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015, “Airport Finance: Information on Funding Sources and Planned Capital Development”, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

## Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Faye C, 2017 Dust, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL

## News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D, 2003, “The Minnow Found Again” New York Times 77

## In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schneier, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Kleizen and Braakman, 2013; Schneier, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

• Two authors: (Kleizen and Braakman, 2013)
• Three or more authors: (Guy et al., 2007)