How to format your references using the Entrepreneurship & Regional Development citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Entrepreneurship & Regional Development. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nisbet, E. 2001. “Heavenly Phenomena.” Nature 410 (6829): 635.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yeomans, Donald K., and Joseph Veverka. 2004. “Obituary: Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004).” Nature 432 (7013): 31.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson, Claire E., Tristan Kooistra, and Dennis H. Kim. 2010. “An Essential Role for XBP-1 in Host Protection against Immune Activation in C. Elegans.” Nature 463 (7284): 1092–1095.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Fujishiro, Takashi, Hiroshi Kawasaki, Makoto Aihara, Tadashiro Saeki, Reiko Ymagishi, Takuya Atarashi, Chihiro Mayama, and Makoto Araie. 2014. “Establishment of an Experimental Ferret Ocular Hypertension Model for the Analysis of Central Visual Pathway Damage.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jacobsson, Martin, Ignas Niemegeers, and Sonia Heemstra de Groot. 2010. Personal Networks. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Verma, Ajit Kumar. 2011. Dependability of Networked Computer-Based Systems. Edited by Srividya Ajit and Manoj Kumar. Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Uohashi, Keiko. 2014. “Harmonic Maps Relative to $$\alpha$$ α -Connections.” In Geometric Theory of Information, edited by Frank Nielsen, 81–96. Signals and Communication Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Entrepreneurship & Regional Development.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Joy To The World: An Ode To Outer Space At Christmas.” IFLScience. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Government Aircraft: Observations on Travel by Senior Officials. NSIAD-95-168BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes, Unique Tiahara. 2014. “Mental Health Services for Foster Youth: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2017. “Whitney: Can I Be Me.” New York Times, August 17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nisbet 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Nisbet 2001; Yeomans and Veverka 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

• Two authors: (Yeomans and Veverka 2004)
• Three authors: (Richardson, Kooistra, and Kim 2010)
• 4 or more authors: (Fujishiro et al. 2014)