How to format your references using the Energy Research & Social Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Research & Social Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F. Hayes, Toxins-antitoxins: plasmid maintenance, programmed cell death, and cell cycle arrest, Science. 301 (2003) 1496–1499.
A journal article with 2 authors
B. Roska, F. Werblin, Vertical interactions across ten parallel, stacked representations in the mammalian retina, Nature. 410 (2001) 583–587.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.A. Downs, N.F. Lowndes, S.P. Jackson, A role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae histone H2A in DNA repair, Nature. 408 (2000) 1001–1004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.L. Polizzotto, B.D. Kocar, S.G. Benner, M. Sampson, S. Fendorf, Near-surface wetland sediments as a source of arsenic release to ground water in Asia, Nature. 454 (2008) 505–508.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. Kukushkin, Radio Wave Propagation in the Marine Boundary Layer, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG, 2004.
An edited book
C.A. Linte, E.C.S. Chen, M.-O. Berger, J.T. Moore, D.R. Holmes, eds., Augmented Environments for Computer-Assisted Interventions: 7th International Workshop, AE-CAI 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Piccioni, Z. Chen, A. Tsun, B. Li, Regulatory T-Cell Differentiation and Their Function in Immune Regulation, in: B. Sun (Ed.), T Helper Cell Differentiation and Their Function, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 67–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Research & Social Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Twisted Light Beams Are Coming – And They Will Boost Your Internet Speed, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Acquisition: Further Changes Needed in FAA’s Management and Budgeting Practices, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.S. Watts, The Effectiveness of a Social Story Intervention in Decreasing Disruptive Behavior in Autistic Children, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. St. John Kelly, The Hatman Closeth, New York Times. (1994) 1310.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Research & Social Science
AbbreviationEnergy Res. Soc. Sci.
ISSN (print)2214-6296
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology
Nuclear Energy and Engineering
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles