How to format your references using the Energy Research & Social Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Research & Social Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Hanson, Mercury, up-close again. Introduction, Science. 321 (2008) 58.
A journal article with 2 authors
M. Leeb, A. Wutz, Derivation of haploid embryonic stem cells from mouse embryos, Nature. 479 (2011) 131–134.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.M. Maurer, P.B. Hugenholtz, H.J. Onsrud, Intellectual property. Europe’s database experiment, Science. 294 (2001) 789–790.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.Y. Lee, C.Y. Shin, S.J. Yoon, H.Y. Lee, W. Lee, N.K. Shrestha, J.K. Lee, S.-H. Han, Enhanced photovoltaic performance of Cu-based metal-organic frameworks sensitized solar cell by addition of carbon nanotubes, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3930.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.J.J. Alvarez, W.A. Illman, Bioremediation and Natural Attenuation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
D.J. Reinkensmeyer, V. Dietz, eds., Neurorehabilitation Technology, 2nd ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Alpay, F. Colombo, I. Sabadini, Finite-dimensional Preliminaries, in: F. Colombo, I. Sabadini (Eds.), Slice Hyperholomorphic Schur Analysis, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 51–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Research & Social Science.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What Happened To The Oil From The Deepwater Horizon Spill? ‘Marine Snow’ Provides A Clue, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Assistance: Information on Payments Made Under the Disaster Relief and Insurance Reimbursement Programs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
F. Gambini, Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Kelly, Man in the News; A Master of the Image: David Richmond Gergen, New York Times. (1993) 122.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Research & Social Science
AbbreviationEnergy Res. Soc. Sci.
ISSN (print)2214-6296
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology
Nuclear Energy and Engineering
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles