How to format your references using the Energy Research & Social Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Research & Social Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Burkard, Physics. Splitting spin states on a chip, Science. 327 (2010) 650–651.
A journal article with 2 authors
T. Arimoto, Y. Sato, Science and society. Rebuilding public trust in science for policy-making, Science. 337 (2012) 1176–1177.
A journal article with 3 authors
N.A. Azzam, J.M. Hallenbeck, B. Kachar, Membrane changes during hibernation, Nature. 407 (2000) 317–318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.S. Fraser, M.W. Clarkson, S.C. Degnan, R. Erion, D. Kern, T. Alber, Hidden alternative structures of proline isomerase essential for catalysis, Nature. 462 (2009) 669–673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.W. Cherrie, R.M. Howie, S. Semple, Monitoring for Health Hazards at Work, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
R.P. Harrod, Bioarchaeology of Climate Change and Violence: Ethical Considerations, Springer, New York, NY, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Gui, M. Roantree, Using a Pipeline Approach to Build Data Cube for Large XML Data Streams, in: B. Hong, X. Meng, L. Chen, W. Winiwarter, W. Song (Eds.), Database Systems for Advanced Applications: 18th International Conference, DASFAA 2013, International Workshops: BDMA, SNSM, SeCoP, Wuhan, China, April 22-25, 2013. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 59–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Research & Social Science.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Astronomers Solve Mystery Of When Ancient Greek Poem Was Written, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Survey of Pricing on NASA Contract, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Lee, Assessing the Well-Being Koreans and Korean Americans: Psychometric Validation Study for a Multidimensional Assessment of Well-Being, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Williams, The Bright Side of 2016, New York Times. (2016) BR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Research & Social Science
AbbreviationEnergy Res. Soc. Sci.
ISSN (print)2214-6296
ScopeEnergy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology
Nuclear Energy and Engineering
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Other styles