How to format your references using the Energy Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Katsnelson, A., 2015. Cosmetics: Molecular beauty. Nature 526, S4-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellerbroek, B., Rigaut, F., 2000. Optics adapt to the whole sky. Nature 403, 25–26.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sidi, S., Friedrich, R.W., Nicolson, T., 2003. NompC TRP channel required for vertebrate sensory hair cell mechanotransduction. Science 301, 96–99.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Liu, X., Yu, Z., Dong, H., Chen, H.-F., 2014. A less or more dusty future in the Northern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau? Sci. Rep. 4, 6672.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waye, J.D., Aisenberg, J., Rubin, P.H., 2013. Practical Colonoscopy. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Wanninger, A. (Ed.), 2015. Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 1: Introduction, Non-Bilateria, Acoelomorpha, Xenoturbellida, Chaetognatha, 1st ed. 2015. ed. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Santschi, M., 2014. Traditional Authorities, Local Justice and Local Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in South Sudan, in: Hellmüller, S., Santschi, M. (Eds.), Is Local Beautiful?: Peacebuilding between International Interventions and Locally Led Initiatives, SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 43–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Reports.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Talking To Mars: New Antenna Design Could Aid Interplanetary Communication [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1970. Need To Improve Administration of Fees and Charges of Regulatory Agencies (No. B-145252). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lancelin, D.B., 2017. A Phenomenological Case Study of Teacher Experiences with and Understanding of Instruction Aligned to the CCSS, and their Role in Advancing Equal Educational Opportunities for Students (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Meier, A., Musick, K., 2012. Is the Family Dinner Overrated? New York Times SR9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Katsnelson, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ellerbroek and Rigaut, 2000; Katsnelson, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellerbroek and Rigaut, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Reports
ISSN (print)2352-4847
ScopeGeneral Energy

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