How to format your references using the Energy Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J., 2008. Quantum critical electron systems: the uncharted sign worlds. Science 319, 1205–1207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kleinman, C.L., Majewski, J., 2012. Comment on “Widespread RNA and DNA sequence differences in the human transcriptome.” Science 335, 1302; author reply 1302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moore, S.D., McGinness, K.E., Sauer, R.T., 2003. Structural biology. A glimpse into tmRNA-mediated ribosome rescue. Science 300, 72–73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lou, S.N., Yap, N., Scott, J., Amal, R., Ng, Y.H., 2014. Influence of MoO3(110) crystalline plane on its self-charging photoelectrochemical properties. Sci. Rep. 4, 7428.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Muccini, M., Toffanin, S., 2016. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dybkjær, L., Minker, W. (Eds.), 2008. Recent Trends in Discourse and Dialogue, Text, Speech and Language Technology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Badekas, T., Souras, N., 2016. Osteochondral Lesion of Talus, Ankle Impingement, and Sinus Tarsi Syndrome, in: Jung, H.-G. (Ed.), Foot and Ankle Disorders: An Illustrated Reference. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 121–146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Reports.

Blog post
Andrews, R., 2016. Climate Change May Be Shifting The Path Of American Tornadoes [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Transportation Research: The Department of Transportation Has Made Progress in Coordinating and Reviewing Its Research Activities (No. GAO-09-361T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Swift, I., 2011. The Perceived Effect of Hidden Costs on the Operational Management of Information Technology Outsourcing: A Qualitative Study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2016. Treasury Official Urges Congress to Act Quickly on Puerto Rico. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Kleinman and Majewski, 2012; Zaanen, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kleinman and Majewski, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Lou et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Reports
ISSN (print)2352-4847
ScopeGeneral Energy

Other styles