How to format your references using the Energy Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Conklin, B.R., 2009. Journal club. A geneticist wonders why we need to sleep. Nature 461, 573.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hollowed, A.B., Sundby, S., 2014. Ecology. Change is coming to the northern oceans. Science 344, 1084–1085.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gächter, S., Renner, E., Sefton, M., 2008. The long-run benefits of punishment. Science 322, 1510.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bezerra-Neto, M.M., Ribeiro, M.S., Sanyal, B., Bergman, A., Muniz, R.B., Eriksson, O., Klautau, A.B., 2013. Complex magnetic structure of clusters and chains of Ni and Fe on Pt(111). Sci. Rep. 3, 3054.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ndjountche, T., 2016. Digital Electronics 3. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Andersen, K.V., Debenham, J., Wagner, R. (Eds.), 2005. Database and Expert Systems Applications: 16th International Conference, DEXA 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 22-26, 2005. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, D.-H., Kim, K.-R., Kim, H.-J., 2013. Bunker Oil C Heating Using Induction Heating, in: Lee, J., Lee, M.C., Liu, H., Ryu, J.-H. (Eds.), Intelligent Robotics and Applications: 6th International Conference, ICIRA 2013, Busan, South Korea, September 25-28, 2013, Proceedings, Part I, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Reports.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2015. Mother Rabbit Attempts to Disembowel the Snake that Killed her Babies [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Aviation Competition: International Aviation Alliances and the Influence of Airline Marketing Practices (No. T-RCED-98-131). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Razo, S.I., 2009. Parenting practices of Latina mothers and children’s behavior outcomes (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Nadal and Federer Steady a Collision Course. New York Times SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Conklin, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Conklin, 2009; Hollowed and Sundby, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hollowed and Sundby, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Bezerra-Neto et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Reports
ISSN (print)2352-4847
ScopeGeneral Energy

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