How to format your references using the Energy Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vogel, G., 2000. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY: Brain Cells Turning Over a New Leaf. Science 289, 1666a.
A journal article with 2 authors
LaFever, L., Drummond-Barbosa, D., 2005. Direct control of germline stem cell division and cyst growth by neural insulin in Drosophila. Science 309, 1071–1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfsberg, T.G., McEntyre, J., Schuler, G.D., 2001. Guide to the draft human genome. Nature 409, 824–826.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Y.-X., Perry, K., Vinci, V.A., Powell, K., Stemmer, W.P.C., del Cardayré, S.B., 2002. Genome shuffling leads to rapid phenotypic improvement in bacteria. Nature 415, 644–646.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misstear, B., Banks, D., Clark, L., 2006. Water Wells and Boreholes. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Ho, Y.-C., 2007. Ordinal Optimization: Soft Optimization for Hard Problems. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Melhus, I., Arnal, F., Gayraud, T., Jacquemin, B., 2008. SATSIX Mobility Architecture and Its Performance Evaluation, in: Fan, L., Cruickshank, H., Sun, Z. (Eds.), IP Networking over Next-Generation Satellite Systems: International Workshop, Budapest, July 2007. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 59–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Reports.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Now That’s A Close Shave: Secrets Of The Halloween Asteroid Headed For Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000. Biotechnology: Information on Prices of Genetically Modified Seeds in the United States and Argentina (No. RCED/NSIAD-00-55). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thiagarajan, T.T., 2017. A Simple and Effective Peak-To-Average Power Ratio Reduction Approach Based on Iterative Companding Transform and Filtering Framework of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Signal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2012. American Withdraws After Positive Drug Test. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vogel, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (LaFever and Drummond-Barbosa, 2005; Vogel, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (LaFever and Drummond-Barbosa, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Reports
ISSN (print)2352-4847
ScopeGeneral Energy

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