How to format your references using the Energy Reports citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Reports. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burkov, A., 2015. PHYSICS. Chiral anomaly without relativity. Science 350, 378–379.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuan, F., Huang, L., 2014. Brittle to ductile transition in densified silica glass. Sci. Rep. 4, 5035.
A journal article with 3 authors
Papp, B., Pál, C., Hurst, L.D., 2003. Dosage sensitivity and the evolution of gene families in yeast. Nature 424, 194–197.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Stiffler, M.A., Chen, J.R., Grantcharova, V.P., Lei, Y., Fuchs, D., Allen, J.E., Zaslavskaia, L.A., MacBeath, G., 2007. PDZ domain binding selectivity is optimized across the mouse proteome. Science 317, 364–369.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bonneau, D., Fatu, A., Souchet, D., 2014. Hydrodynamic Bearings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Klug, C., Korn, D., De Baets, K., Kruta, I., Mapes, R.H. (Eds.), 2015. Ammonoid Paleobiology: From anatomy to ecology, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Topics in Geobiology. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Farhan-Hassan, H., Gulevich, D.R., Dmitriev, P.N., Koshelets, V.P., Kusmartsev, F.V., 2011. Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) Made with the Fluxon Cloning Circuits, in: Pereira, M.F., Shulika, O. (Eds.), Terahertz and Mid Infrared Radiation: Generation, Detection and Applications, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 29–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Reports.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. A Tree Species Thought To Be Extinct Has Been Found In The Queen’s Garden [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1998. Managing for Results: Observations on NASA’s Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Plan (No. NSIAD-98-181). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duffy, B., 2012. Analytical Methods and Perturbation Theory for the Elliptic Restricted Three-Body Problem of Astrodynamics (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S., 2010. Russia: Fire Destroys Church Near Ravine Where Remains of a Czar Were Found. New York Times A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burkov, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Burkov, 2015; Yuan and Huang, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuan and Huang, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Stiffler et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Reports
ISSN (print)2352-4847
ScopeGeneral Energy

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