How to format your references using the Energy Conversion and Management: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Conversion and Management: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Zimmer C. EVOLUTION: Parasites Make Scaredy-Rats Foolhardy. Science 2000;289:525b–7b.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Joly P-B, Rip A. A timely harvest. Nature 2007;450:174.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Brummelkamp TR, Bernards R, Agami R. A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Science 2002;296:550–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Clare DK, Bakkes PJ, van Heerikhuizen H, van der Vies SM, Saibil HR. Chaperonin complex with a newly folded protein encapsulated in the folding chamber. Nature 2009;457:107–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Budisa N. Engineering the Genetic Code. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
[1]
Wu Y, editor. Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering: Theory and Practice: Volume 2. vol. 115. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Yin Y, Kaku I, Tang J, Zhu J. Genetic Algorithm-based Fuzzy Nonlinear Programming. In: Kaku I, Tang J, Zhu J, editors. Data Mining: Concepts, Methods and Applications in Management and Engineering Design, London: Springer; 2011, p. 55–86.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Conversion and Management: X.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Here’s What 1930s Fashion Designers Thought We’d Be Wearing In The Year 2000. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Education Allowance Grants Made to Trust Territory Government Employees. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1969.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Sharp LM. Creative nonfiction illuminated: Cross-disciplinary spotlights. Doctoral dissertation. University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Packer G. Celebrating Inequality. New York Times 2013:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Conversion and Management: X
ISSN (print)2590-1745
Scope

Other styles