How to format your references using the Energy Conversion and Management: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy Conversion and Management: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas DJ. Evidence for deep-water production in the North Pacific Ocean during the early Cenozoic warm interval. Nature 2004;430:65–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
West SA, Sheldon BC. Constraints in the evolution of sex ratio adjustment. Science 2002;295:1685–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krasnoshchekov DN, Kaazik PB, Ovtchinnikov VM. Seismological evidence for mosaic structure of the surface of the Earth’s inner core. Nature 2005;435:483–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nojima S, Schal C, Webster FX, Santangelo RG, Roelofs WL. Identification of the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Science 2005;307:1104–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bajpai P. Environmentally Friendly Production of Pulp and Paper. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Satchell S, editor. Asset Management: Portfolio Construction, Performance and Returns. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Lemert C. Slouching Toward Inequality. In: Machin A, Stehr N, editors. Understanding Inequality: Social Costs and Benefits, Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden; 2016, p. 101–10.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy Conversion and Management: X.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Bright Spots On Ceres Much Younger Than Previously Thought. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Budget Analysis: SSA’s Information Systems Funding for Fiscal Years 1988 and 1989. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bui L. Mind Over Matter Telepsychiatry. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Quiet Campaigns Begin For Presidency of I.O.C. New York Times 2013:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy Conversion and Management: X
ISSN (print)2590-1745

Other styles