How to format your references using the Energy & Fuels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy & Fuels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rolston, S. Quantum Physics: Getting the Measure of Entanglement. Nature 2015, 528 (7580), 48–49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gundersen, G. G.; Bretscher, A. Cell Biology. Microtubule Asymmetry. Science 2003, 300 (5628), 2040–2041.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moore, G. W. K.; Holdsworth, G.; Alverson, K. Climate Change in the North Pacific Region over the Past Three Centuries. Nature 2002, 420 (6914), 401–403.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kudo, K.; Iba, K.; Takasuga, M.; Kitahama, Y.; Matsumura, J.-I.; Danura, M.; Nogami, Y.; Nohara, M. Emergence of Superconductivity at 45 K by Lanthanum and Phosphorus Co-Doping of CaFe₂As₂. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rasch, D.; Schott, D. Mathematische Statistik; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015.
An edited book
Salivary Gland Disorders; Myers, E. N., Ferris, R. L., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Acary, V.; Brogliato, B. Complementarity Systems. In Numerical Methods for Nonsmooth Dynamical Systems: Applications in Mechanics and Electronics; Brogliato, B., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp 165–176.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy & Fuels.

Blog post
Fang, J. The Beetle That’s Whiter Than Paper (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP Acquisition: Army Civilian Personnel System; IMTEC-89-22FS; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dovale, M. J. Postwar Japan’s Hybrid Modernity of in-Betweenness: Historical, Literary, and Social Perspectives. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. A Global Bible Contest Serves as a Testament to Their Relationship. New York Times. February 13, 2017, p A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy & Fuels
AbbreviationEnergy Fuels
ISSN (print)0887-0624
ISSN (online)1520-5029
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

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