How to format your references using the Energy & Fuels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy & Fuels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benovic, J. L. Structural Biology: Arresting Developments in Receptor Signalling. Nature 2015, 523 (7562), 538–539.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lyra, W.; Kuchner, M. Formation of Sharp Eccentric Rings in Debris Disks with Gas but without Planets. Nature 2013, 499 (7457), 184–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pinker, R. T.; Zhang, B.; Dutton, E. G. Do Satellites Detect Trends in Surface Solar Radiation? Science 2005, 308 (5723), 850–854.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.; McDonald, F. B.; Heikkila, B. C.; Lal, N.; Webber, W. R. An Asymmetric Solar Wind Termination Shock. Nature 2008, 454 (7200), 71–74.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Taylor, B. Effective Environmental, Health, and Safety Management Using the Team Approach; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2005.
An edited book
Cioranescu, D. Mechanics and Mathematics of Fluids of the Differential Type; Girault, V., Rajagopal, K. R., Eds.; Advances in Mechanics and Mathematics; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; Vol. 35.
A chapter in an edited book
Backhaus, G. F. Regulatory Aspects in Chemical Control of Fungal Diseases: Impact on Efficient Plant Production. In Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases; Gisi, U., Chet, I., Gullino, M. L., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2009; pp 47–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy & Fuels.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Google Embarks On Ambitious Project To Change The Way We Diagnose Cancer (accessed Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger and Freight Rail: Better Data and Communication of Uncertainties Can Help Decision Makers Understand Benefits and Trade-Offs of Programs and Policies; GAO-11-290; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wright, N. C. The Association between Rheumatoid Arthritis, Bone Strength, and Body Composition within the Women’s Health Initiative. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira, S. Why Women Aren’t C.E.O.s. New York Times. July 21, 2017, p SR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy & Fuels
AbbreviationEnergy Fuels
ISSN (print)0887-0624
ISSN (online)1520-5029
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

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