How to format your references using the Energy & Fuels citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy & Fuels. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain, C. What Matters for Science Is Who Runs the Country. Nature 2012, 488 (7413), 559.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rothenberg, K. H.; Terry, S. F. Human Genetics. Before It’s Too Late--Addressing Fear of Genetic Information. Science 2002, 297 (5579), 196–197.
A journal article with 3 authors
Majumder, A.; Ghatak, A.; Sharma, A. Microfluidic Adhesion Induced by Subsurface Microstructures. Science 2007, 318 (5848), 258–261.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kumar, K. K.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hoerling, M.; Bates, G.; Cane, M. Unraveling the Mystery of Indian Monsoon Failure during El Niño. Science 2006, 314 (5796), 115–119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghez, R. A Primer of Diffusion Problems; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, FRG, 2005.
An edited book
Microbial Metal Respiration: From Geochemistry to Potential Applications; Gescher, J., Kappler, A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
van der Aalst, W. M. P.; Dumas, M.; Gottschalk, F.; ter Hofstede, A. H. M.; La Rosa, M.; Mendling, J. Correctness-Preserving Configuration of Business Process Models. In Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering: 11th International Conference, FASE 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29-April 6, 2008. Proceedings; Fiadeiro, J. L., Inverardi, P., Eds.; Hutchison, D., Kanade, T., Kittler, J., Kleinberg, J. M., Mattern, F., Mitchell, J. C., Naor, M., Nierstrasz, O., Pandu Rangan, C., Steffen, B., Sudan, M., Terzopoulos, D., Tygar, D., Vardi, M. Y., Weikum, G., Series Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008; pp 46–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy & Fuels.

Blog post
Andrew, E. We Have 15 Years To Halt Biodiversity Loss, Can It Be Done? (accessed 2018 -10 -30).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Consolidated Student Loans: Borrowers Benefit but Costs to Them and the Government Grow; HRD-90-8; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Robles, B. Academic Achievement among Foster Care Children with a Disability: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G. G. Familiar Face on ‘Sesame Street’ Tells of Her Own Childhood. New York Times. September 2, 2015, p C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy & Fuels
AbbreviationEnergy Fuels
ISSN (print)0887-0624
ISSN (online)1520-5029
ScopeGeneral Chemical Engineering
Energy Engineering and Power Technology
Fuel Technology

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