How to format your references using the Energy & Environmental Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy & Environmental Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Famulok, Science, 2004, 306, 233–234.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. S. Perakis and L. O. Hedin, Nature, 2002, 415, 416–419.
A journal article with 3 authors
W. Gerstner, H. Sprekeler and G. Deco, Science, 2012, 338, 60–65.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Rosenfeld, U. Lohmann, G. B. Raga, C. D. O’Dowd, M. Kulmala, S. Fuzzi, A. Reissell and M. O. Andreae, Science, 2008, 321, 1309–1313.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Goering, H.-G. Roos and L. Tobiska, Die Finite-Elemente-Methode für Anfänger, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010.
An edited book
A.-R. Sadeghi, Ed., Financial Cryptography and Data Security: 17th International Conference, FC 2013, Okinawa, Japan, April 1-5, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013, vol. 7859.
A chapter in an edited book
C. E. H. Scott-Conner and J. L. Chassin, in Chassin’s Operative Strategy in General Surgery: An Expositive Atlas, ed. C. E. H. Scott-Conner, Springer, New York, NY, 2014, pp. 39–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy & Environmental Science.

Blog post
D. Andrew, How To Make Chocolate Appear Out Of Thin Air,, (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Highlights of a GAO Forum: Managing the Supplier Base in the 21st Century, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M. Coyle, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Cooper, New York Times, 2017, C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy & Environmental Science
AbbreviationEnergy Environ. Sci.
ISSN (print)1754-5692
ISSN (online)1754-5706
ScopeNuclear Energy and Engineering
Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
Environmental Chemistry

Other styles