How to format your references using the Energy & Buildings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy & Buildings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Eisenstein, Evolution: The first supper, Nature. 468 (2010) S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.T. Miller, S. Pitnick, Sperm-female coevolution in Drosophila, Science. 298 (2002) 1230–1233.
A journal article with 3 authors
S. Mulepati, A. Héroux, S. Bailey, Structural biology. Crystal structure of a CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex bound to a ssDNA target, Science. 345 (2014) 1479–1484.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
O.T. Eldakar, M.J. Dlugos, J.W. Pepper, D.S. Wilson, Population structure mediates sexual conflict in water striders, Science. 326 (2009) 816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
S. Tebbani, F. Lopes, R. Filali, D. Dumur, D. Pareau, CO 2 Biofixation by Microalgae, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
Z. Argenyi, Cutaneous Neural Neoplasms: A Practical Guide, 1st ed., Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Dransfield, S. Farnworth, Axl and Mer Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Distinct and Nonoverlapping Roles in Inflammation and Cancer?, in: C.D. Gregory (Ed.), Apoptosis in Cancer Pathogenesis and Anti-Cancer Therapy: New Perspectives and Opportunities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 113–132.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy & Buildings.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Black Supermoon Will Be Visible Wednesday Night, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Grant Programs: Design Features Shape Flexibility, Accountability, and Performance Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
O. Chima-Okereke, The distinct VPS35 mutant, env1, exhibits unique protein mislocalization and processing phenotype, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Saves Those Stripes, Grab Some Scarves, New York Times. (2010) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy & Buildings
AbbreviationEnergy Build.
ISSN (print)0378-7788
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Building and Construction

Other styles