How to format your references using the Energy & Buildings citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Energy & Buildings. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.L. Heeney, Ebola: Hidden reservoirs, Nature. 527 (2015) 453–455.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Hinck, Q. Schiermeier, Will industry play a bigger role in Europe’s aims to promote mobility among postdocs?, Nature. 421 (2003) 296–297.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Allen, S. Raper, J. Mitchell, Climate change. Uncertainty in the IPCC’s Third Assessment Report, Science. 293 (2001) 430–433.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H.-P. Lu, Y.-C. Lai, S.-W. Huang, H.-C. Chen, C.-H. Hsieh, H.-T. Yu, Spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota reveals multiple bacterial communities with distinct characteristics, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6185.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M.L.C. Bernheim, Ciba Foundation Symposium 39 - Monoamine Oxidase and its Inhibition: Ciba/Monoamine, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, UK, 2008.
An edited book
S.R.D. Rocca, ed., Typed Lambda Calculi and Applications: 8th International Conference,TLCA 2007, Paris, France,June 26-28, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Tracqui, P. Namy, J. Ohayon, In Vitro Tubulogenesis of Endothelial Cells: Analysis of a Bifurcation Process Controlled by a Mechanical Switch, in: A. Deutsch, L. Brusch, H. Byrne, G. de Vries, H. Herzel (Eds.), Mathematical Modeling of Biological Systems, Volume I: Cellular Biophysics, Regulatory Networks, Development, Biomedicine, and Data Analysis, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 2007: pp. 47–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Energy & Buildings.

Blog post
R. Andrews, Here’s How To Find Out What Google Knows About You, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Commercial Maritime Industry: Updated Information on Federal Assessments, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.L. Vaughn, Find me on Facebook: A new typology for categorizing online personalities, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Kishkovsky, A Theater Boom Is Born In Russian Film Industry, New York Times. (1998) C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEnergy & Buildings
AbbreviationEnergy Build.
ISSN (print)0378-7788
ScopeCivil and Structural Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Mechanical Engineering
Building and Construction

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