How to format your references using the Emerging Microbes & Infections citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Microbes & Infections. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stoll H. Journal club. A biogeochemist sees the value of diversity in a changing ocean. Nature 2009; 460: 935.
A journal article with 2 authors
Skourtis SS, Beratan DN. Biochemistry. Photosynthesis from the protein’s perspective. Science 2007; 316: 703–704.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen Y-Z, Huang Z-G, Lai Y-C. Controlling extreme events on complex networks. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 6121.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
DiToro D, Winstead CJ, Pham D et al. Differential IL-2 expression defines developmental fates of follicular versus nonfollicular helper T cells. Science 2018; 361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Valizadeh P. Field Effect Transistors, A Comprehensive Overview. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: Hoboken, NJ, 2016.
An edited book
Chinesta F. PGD-Based Modeling of Materials, Structures and Processes. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahn G-O, Brown JM. Combinations of Hypoxia-Targeting Compounds and Radiation-Activated Prodrugs with Ionizing Radiation. In: Brown JM, Mehta MP, Nieder C (eds). Multimodal Concepts for Integration of Cytotoxic Drugs. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006, pp 67–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Microbes & Infections.

Blog post
Luntz S. Scientists Translate Monkey Sounds To English. IFLScience. 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Undergraduate Helicopter Pilot Training: Consolidation Could Yield Significant Savings. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shore LA. The anima in animation: Miyazaki heroines and post-patriarchal consciousness. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schmidt MS, Haberman M, Apuzzo M. Wary of Mueller, Trump’s Team Is Investigating His Investigators. New York Times. 2017; : A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Microbes & Infections
AbbreviationEmerg. Microbes Infect.
ISSN (online)2222-1751
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Drug Discovery

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