How to format your references using the Emerging Microbes & Infections citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Microbes & Infections. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Montgomery SL. Newton in Japan. Nature 2001; 411: 25.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rohatgi R, Scott MP. Cell biology. Arrestin’ movement in cilia. Science 2008; 320: 1726–1727.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arce SH, Wu P-H, Tseng Y. Fast and accurate automated cell boundary determination for fluorescence microscopy. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 2266.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Festenstein R, Pagakis SN, Hiragami K et al. Modulation of heterochromatin protein 1 dynamics in primary Mammalian cells. Science 2003; 299: 719–721.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang J-J. Hydraulic Fracturing in Earth-Rock Fill DAMS. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd: Singapore, 2014.
An edited book
Magi-Galluzzi C, Przybycin CG (eds.). Genitourinary Pathology: Practical Advances. Springer: New York, NY, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Friedman H. Using Aikido and Transpersonal Psychology Concepts as Tools for Reconciling Conflict. In: Wagner W (ed). AiKiDô: The Trinity of Conflict Transformation. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden: Wiesbaden, 2015, pp 115–135.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Microbes & Infections.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Thank Grandmothers For Romance. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Health, Education, Employment, and Income Security Reports. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ayhan MS. A Probabilistic Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Scouting Report. New York Times. 2010; : E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Microbes & Infections
AbbreviationEmerg. Microbes Infect.
ISSN (online)2222-1751
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Drug Discovery

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