How to format your references using the Emerging Microbes & Infections citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Emerging Microbes & Infections. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fields HL. Neuroscience. More pain; less gain. Science 2014; 345: 513–514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Stewart I, Cohen J. Monolith. Nature 2000; 408: 913.
A journal article with 3 authors
Young IR, Zieger S, Babanin AV. Global trends in wind speed and wave height. Science 2011; 332: 451–455.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Keeling PJ, Archibald JM, Fast NM, Palmer JD. Comment on ‘The evolution of modern eukaryotic phytoplankton’. Science 2004; 306: 2191; author reply 2191.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dudbridge M. Handbook of Seal Integrity in the Food Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
Dijke PT, Heldin C-H (eds.). Smad Signal Transduction: Smads in Proliferation, Differentiation and Disease. Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Hettige S. Neo-Liberal Reforms, the Ethnic Conflict and the Decline of Liberal Democracy in Sri Lanka. In: Wolf SO, Schöttli J, Frommherz D et al. (eds). Politics in South Asia: Culture, Rationality and Conceptual Flow. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015, pp 61–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Emerging Microbes & Infections.

Blog post
Andrew E. Gates Foundation Will Require All Funded Research To Be Open Access. IFLScience. 2014. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Law Enforcement Block Grant Awards. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Learn DT. Differentiating instruction on the basis of cognitive tools: A case study of honors and mainstream middle school classes. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L. Mystery House. New York Times. 2012; : ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEmerging Microbes & Infections
AbbreviationEmerg. Microbes Infect.
ISSN (online)2222-1751
General Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Drug Discovery

Other styles