How to format your references using the Education & Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education & Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wadman M. US blood ban underlines CJD fears. Nature 2001;412:7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ginther DK, Kahn S. WOMEN IN SCIENCE. Comment on ‘Expectations of brilliance underlie gender distributions across academic disciplines’. Science 2015;349:391.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jalili R, Razal JM, Wallace GG. Wet-spinning of PEDOT:PSS/functionalized-SWNTs composite: a facile route toward production of strong and highly conducting multifunctional fibers. Sci Rep 2013;3:3438.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Laskar A, Singh R, Ghose S, et al. Hydrodynamic instabilities provide a generic route to spontaneous biomimetic oscillations in chemomechanically active filaments. Sci Rep 2013;3:1964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chitty J, Raftery A. Essentials of Tortoise Medicine and Surgery. Oxford: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2013.
An edited book
Chowdri NA, Parray FQ, editors. Benign Anorectal Disorders: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management. 1st ed. 2016. New Delhi: : Springer India 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Granados A, Mayer E, Norton C, et al. Haptics Modelling for Digital Rectal Examinations. In: Bello F, Cotin S, eds. Biomedical Simulation: 6th International Symposium, ISBMS 2014, Strasbourg, France, October 16-17, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: : Springer International Publishing 2014. 40–9.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education & Practice.

Blog post
Andrew E. New CT Reveals Inner Structures of Body in Exquisite Detail. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Infrastructure: Oversight of Rental Rates for Highway Construction Equipment Is Inadequate. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson AM. A novel role for MUC7 mucin glycoprotein in the innate immunity and genetic propensity of asthma. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Namath Has His Own Memories of ’65. New York Times. 2010;:B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation & Practice
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child. Educ. Pract. Ed.
ISSN (print)1743-0585
ISSN (online)1743-0593
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles