How to format your references using the Education & Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education & Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Heritage J. Plant sciences. Super sunflowers--stopping the rot? Science 2003;300:1243–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fries M, Steele A. Graphite whiskers in CV3 meteorites. Science 2008;320:91–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hauser MD, Chomsky N, Fitch WT. The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science 2002;298:1569–79.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ye J, He W, Wu Q, et al. Determination of magnetic anisotropy constants in Fe ultrathin film on vicinal Si(111) by anisotropic magnetoresistance. Sci Rep 2013;3:2148.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beaumont WRC. Electricity in fish research and management. Chichester, UK: : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2016.
An edited book
Kourkoulis SK, editor. Fracture and Failure of Natural Building Stones: Applications in the Restoration of Ancient Monuments. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Chen Y, Chen L, Chen Z. Generic Methods to Achieve Tighter Security Reductions for a Category of IBE Schemes. In: Bao F, Weng J, eds. Information Security Practice and Experience: 7th International Conference, ISPEC 2011, Guangzhou, China, May 30 – June 1, 2011. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: : Springer 2011. 40–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education & Practice.

Blog post
Hale T. Breakthrough Prize Awards World’s Top Scientists At ‘Oscars’ of Science. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Fiscal Year 2013 Agreed-Upon Procedures: Excise Tax Distributions to the Airport and Airway Trust Fund and the Highway Trust Fund. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCollough KD. Applying Military Developments in Netcentricity to Civilian Emergency Management. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feuer A. A Campaign to Preserve the Ordinary. New York Times. 2015;:MB1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation & Practice
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child. Educ. Pract. Ed.
ISSN (print)1743-0585
ISSN (online)1743-0593
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles