How to format your references using the Education & Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Education & Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Visbeck M. Oceanography: power of pull. Nature 2007;447:383.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin Q, He SY. Role of the Hrp pilus in type III protein secretion in Pseudomonas syringae. Science 2001;294:2556–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin X, Hull CM, Heitman J. Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus neoformans. Nature 2005;434:1017–21.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zimmerman SC, Wendland MS, Rakow NA, et al. Synthetic hosts by monomolecular imprinting inside dendrimers. Nature 2002;418:399–403.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sinaiski EG. Hydromechanics. Weinheim, Germany: : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA 2011.
An edited book
Ognjenovic G, editor. Responsibility in Context: Perspectives. Dordrecht: : Springer Netherlands 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Jackman AL, Jansen G, Ng M. Folate Receptor Targeted Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitors. In: Jackman AL, Leamon CP, eds. Targeted Drug Strategies for Cancer and Inflammation. Boston, MA: : Springer US 2011. 93–117.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Education & Practice.

Blog post
Luntz S. Ancient Predator Reveals Arthropod Origins. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Stronger Measures Needed To Insure That Medical Diathermy Devices Are Safe and Effective. Washington, DC: : U.S. Government Printing Office 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Charoenphol D. Using robust statistical methodology to evaluate the performance of project delivery systems: A case study of horizontal construction. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly F. STATUE REDEDICATED. New York Times. 1984;:11NJ23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEducation & Practice
AbbreviationArch. Dis. Child. Educ. Pract. Ed.
ISSN (print)1743-0585
ISSN (online)1743-0593
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles