How to format your references using the Educación Médica Superior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educación Médica Superior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Medzhitov R. Origin and physiological roles of inflammation. Nature. 2008 Jul 24;454(7203):428–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bauer J, Prenzel M. Science education. European teacher training reforms. Science. 2012 Jun 29;336(6089):1642–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
McKnight S, Beyer A, Gall J. Retrospective. Oscar Miller (1925-2012). Science. 2012 Mar 23;335(6075):1457.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Goldstein SL, Soffer G, Langmuir CH, Lehnert KA, Graham DW, Michael PJ. Origin of a “Southern Hemisphere” geochemical signature in the Arctic upper mantle. Nature. 2008 May 1;453(7191):89–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hirsch HL. Essential Communication Strategies for Scientists, Engineers, and Technology Professionals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Pardalos PM, Rebennack S, Pereira MVF, Iliadis NA, Pappu V, editors. Handbook of Wind Power Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. IX, 843 p. 445 illus. (Energy Systems).
A chapter in an edited book
Halmenschlager CM, de Andrade MJ, Tarragó DP, de Fraga Malfatti C. Nanostructured Materials for Energy Applications. In: Bergmann CP, Andrade MJ de, editors. Nanostructured Materials for Engineering Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educación Médica Superior.

Blog post
Andrew E. 10 Deadliest Diseases in Human History [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. New or Renovated Warehouse Space Provided Under Extended Storage Agreements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983 Oct. Report No.: RCED-84-49.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bunkley RL. A mentoring program for adolescents in a placement facility: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wertheimer LK. The Middle East Conflict on Campus. New York Times. 2016 Aug 3;ED10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEducación Médica Superior
ISSN (print)0864-2141
ISSN (online)1561-2902

Other styles