How to format your references using the Educación Médica Superior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educación Médica Superior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cantley LC. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway. Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1655–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cullimore J, Dénarié J. Plant sciences. How legumes select their sweet talking symbionts. Science. 2003 Oct 24;302(5645):575–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Quax R, Kandhai D, Sloot PMA. Information dissipation as an early-warning signal for the Lehman Brothers collapse in financial time series. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1898.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Suematsu S, Harano K-I, Tanaka S, Kawaura K, Ogihara Y, Watari Y, et al. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2577.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schlechty PC. Leading for Learning. San Francisco, CA, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2009.
An edited book
Pisacane G. Arbitration in China: Rules & Perspectives. Murphy L, Zhang C, editors. Singapore: Springer; 2016. IX, 213 p. (China Law, Tax & Accounting).
A chapter in an edited book
Bernstein DJ, Birkner P, Lange T. Starfish on Strike. In: Abdalla M, Barreto PSLM, editors. Progress in Cryptology – LATINCRYPT 2010: First International Conference on Cryptology and Information Security in Latin America, Puebla, Mexico, August 8-11, 2010, proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 61–80. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educación Médica Superior.

Blog post
Andrew D. How To Stop A Zombie Apocalypse – With Science. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. No Child Left Behind Act: Education Assistance Could Help States Better Measure Progress of Students with Limited English Proficiency. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Mar. Report No.: GAO-07-646T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Li S. Semiconductor and metal oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, physical properties and industrial application [Doctoral dissertation]. [New York, NY]: Columbia University; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B. Music Videos Come to Life. New York Times. 2016 Sep 1;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEducación Médica Superior
ISSN (print)0864-2141
ISSN (online)1561-2902

Other styles