How to format your references using the Educación Médica Superior citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Educación Médica Superior. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson S. Big data: The Harvard computers. Nature. 2008 Sep 4;455(7209):36–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gillespie RG, Roderick GK. Evolution: Geology and climate drive diversification. Nature. 2014 May 15;509(7500):297–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Barsh GS, Farooqi IS, O’Rahilly S. Genetics of body-weight regulation. Nature. 2000 Apr 6;404(6778):644–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Snow CD, Nguyen H, Pande VS, Gruebele M. Absolute comparison of simulated and experimental protein-folding dynamics. Nature. 2002 Nov 7;420(6911):102–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG. Funding Atlas 2012. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
Hull R, Mendling J, Tai S, editors. Business Process Management: 8th International Conference, BPM 2010, Hoboken, NJ, USA, September 13-16, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. XIII, 359 p. 140 illus. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 6336).
A chapter in an edited book
Reyes M, Meza I, Pineda LA. The Positive Effect of Negative Feedback in HRI Using a Facial Expression Robot. In: Koh JTKV, Dunstan BJ, Silvera-Tawil D, Velonaki M, editors. Cultural Robotics: First International Workshop, CR 2015, Held as Part of IEEE RO-MAN 2015, Kobe, Japan, August 31, 2015 Revised Selected Papers. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 44–54. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Educación Médica Superior.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. This Stunning Image Of Saturn’s Rings Contains A Surprise [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: Development of New Security Technology Has Not Met Expectations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 May. Report No.: RCED-94-142.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
King GD. Public Works Directors’ Perceptions of the Effects of Stakeholders on Environmental Policies in California Cities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. That General-Store Feeling. New York Times. 2010 Dec 26;NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleEducación Médica Superior
ISSN (print)0864-2141
ISSN (online)1561-2902

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