How to format your references using the Écoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Écoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mottron, L., 2011. Changing perceptions: The power of autism. Nature, 479: 33–35.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cory, D. G. & T. F. Havel, 2004. Physics. Ion entanglement in quantum information processing. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304: 1456–1457.
A journal article with 3 authors
Knigge, C., M. J. Coe & P. Podsiadlowski, 2011. Two populations of X-ray pulsars produced by two types of supernova. Nature, 479: 372–375.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
De Joussineau, C., J. Soulé, M. Martin, C. Anguille, P. Montcourrier & D. Alexandre, 2003. Delta-promoted filopodia mediate long-range lateral inhibition in Drosophila. Nature, 426: 555–559.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dasgupta, A., 2012. Resolving Erroneous Reports in Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Delgado, J. M. P. Q. (Ed.), 2016. Recent Developments in Building Diagnosis Techniques1st ed. 2016. Springer, Singapore.
A chapter in an edited book
Thomas, M. O. J. & J. M. Palmer, 2014. Teaching with Digital Technology: Obstacles and Opportunities. Pages 71–89 in A. Clark-Wilson, O. Robutti, & N. Sinclair (eds.) The Mathematics Teacher in the Digital Era: An International Perspective on Technology Focused Professional Development. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Écoscience.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016, November 3. Understanding Dark Matter Using Supercomputers. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1972. Review of the Emergency School Assistance Program Community Grants Awarded to the Nashville Urban League by the Office of Education, HEW. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warwick-Smith, K. M., 2017. Remembering Prudence: Tracking the Iconography of a Cardinal Virtue to Her Resurgence in Depth Psychology. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2012, November 29. N.F.L.-Approved Therapist For Fans Draws Scrutiny. New York Times: B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mottron 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Cory & Havel 2004, Mottron 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cory & Havel 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (De Joussineau et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleÉcoscience
ISSN (print)1195-6860
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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