How to format your references using the Écoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Écoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clery, D., 2014. Six handshakes, then silence. Science (New York, N.Y.), 344: 964–965.
A journal article with 2 authors
Savill, J. & V. Fadok, 2000. Corpse clearance defines the meaning of cell death. Nature, 407: 784–788.
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith, D. R., J. B. Pendry & M. C. K. Wiltshire, 2004. Metamaterials and negative refractive index. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305: 788–792.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ross, J. S., P. Amendt, L. J. Atherton, M. Dunne, S. H. Glenzer, J. D. Lindl, D. Meeker, E. I. Moses, A. Nikroo & R. Wallace, 2013. Lead (Pb) hohlraum: target for inertial fusion energy. Scientific reports, 3: 1453.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Nedoma, J., J. Stehlík, I. Hlaváček, J. Daněk, T. Dostálová & P. Přečková, 2011. Mathematical and Computational Methods in Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Di Piazza, M. C., 2013. Photovoltaic Sources: Modeling and Emulation. Page (G. Vitale, Ed.). Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Grefenstette, E., M. Sadrzadeh, S. Clark, B. Coecke & S. Pulman, 2014. Concrete Sentence Spaces for Compositional Distributional Models of Meaning. Pages 71–86 in H. Bunt, J. Bos, & S. Pulman (eds.) Computing Meaning: Volume 4. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Écoscience.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016, October 28. Brain Region Responsible For The Placebo Effect Has Been Identified. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Information Technology: Better Management of Interdependencies between Programs Supporting 2020 Census Is Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Albrinck, B. M., 2010. An Exploratory Study of Urban Transportation and Air Quality Issues Using CO as an Indicator. Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W., 2017, March 13. Puerto Rico, Mired in Debt, Approves a Rescue Plan. New York Times: B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clery 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Savill & Fadok 2000, Clery 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Savill & Fadok 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Ross et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleÉcoscience
ISSN (print)1195-6860
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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