How to format your references using the Écoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Écoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson, K., 2012. Vaccination: A durable design. Nature, 488: S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maizels, R. M. & J. E. Allen, 2011. Immunology. Eosinophils forestall obesity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332: 186–187.
A journal article with 3 authors
Krumholz, M. R., C. F. McKee & R. I. Klein, 2005. The formation of stars by gravitational collapse rather than competitive accretion. Nature, 438: 332–334.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grill, S. W., P. Gönczy, E. H. Stelzer & A. A. Hyman, 2001. Polarity controls forces governing asymmetric spindle positioning in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Nature, 409: 630–633.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hauser, G., 2008. Hygienegerechte Apparate Und Anlagen. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Seed, M. P. & D. A. Walsh (Eds.), 2008. Angiogenesis in Inflammation: Mechanisms and Clinical Correlates. Birkhäuser, Basel.
A chapter in an edited book
Snow, E. L., L. K. Allen & D. S. McNamara, 2015. The Dynamical Analysis of Log Data Within Educational Games. Pages 81–100 in C. S. Loh, Y. Sheng, & D. Ifenthaler (eds.) Serious Games Analytics: Methodologies for Performance Measurement, Assessment, and Improvement. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Écoscience.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015, October 24. Ecotourism Could Be Making Animals Less Scared, And Easier To Eat. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. DOD Computer Contracting: Inadequate Management Wasted Millions of Dollars. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Eggers, M. von, 2017. Searching for a Post-Jungian Psychophysical Reality in Recovery from Addiction. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., 2017, May 15. Climate Scientists Unite With Lawyers to Counter Attacks on Their Efforts. New York Times: A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sanderson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Maizels & Allen 2011, Sanderson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Maizels & Allen 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Grill et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleÉcoscience
ISSN (print)1195-6860
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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