How to format your references using the Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gottschling DE. Molecular biology. Fragile delivery to the genome. Science (New York, NY) 2012; 337(6091): 160–161.
A journal article with 2 authors
Li L, Weidner DJ. Effect of phase transitions on compressional-wave velocities in the Earth’s mantle. Nature 2008; 454(7207): 984–986.
A journal article with 3 authors
Donlea JM, Ramanan N, Shaw PJ. Use-dependent plasticity in clock neurons regulates sleep need in Drosophila. Science (New York, NY) 2009; 324(5923): 105–108.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Stratford K, Adhikari R, Pagonabarraga I, Desplat JC, Cates ME. Colloidal jamming at interfaces: a route to fluid-bicontinuous gels. Science (New York, NY) 2005; 309(5744): 2198–2201.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jaffe J. Flip the Funnel. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Jeannot E, Namyst R, Roman J, editors. Euro-Par 2011 Parallel Processing: 17th International Conference, Euro-Par 2011, Bordeaux, France, August 29 - September 2, 2011, Proceedings, Part I. vol. 6852. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Perotti L, Lasagna M, Clemente P, Dino GA, De Luca DA. Remote Sensing and Hydrogeological Methodologies for Irrigation Canal Water Losses Detection: The Naviglio di Bra Test Site (NW-Italy). In: Lollino G, Arattano M, Rinaldi M, Giustolisi O, Marechal JC, Grant GE, editors. Engineering Geology for Society and Territory - Volume 3: River Basins, Reservoir Sedimentation and Water Resources, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Species Of Anglerfish Discovered. IFLScience 2015. [accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Energy and Science Reports and Testimony: 1992. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bombard B. Literature circles book club for science and language arts. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Apartment Toll At 58. New York Times 2004: A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics
AbbreviationEarthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn.
ISSN (online)1096-9845
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles