How to format your references using the Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tian P. Research impact: A tale of two systems. Nature 2015; 520(7549): S28-30.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tzeng SR, Kalodimos CG. Dynamic activation of an allosteric regulatory protein. Nature 2009; 462(7271): 368–372.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brummelkamp TR, Bernards R, Agami R. A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Science (New York, NY) 2002; 296(5567): 550–553.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Carol RJ, Takeda S, Linstead P, Durrant MC, Kakesova H, Derbyshire P, et al. A RhoGDP dissociation inhibitor spatially regulates growth in root hair cells. Nature 2005; 438(7070): 1013–1016.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wells R. Global Credit Management. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Tatnall A, Leslie C, editors. International Communities of Invention and Innovation: IFIP WG 9.7 International Conference on the History of Computing, HC 2016, Brooklyn, NY, USA, May 25-29, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. vol. 491. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Srivastava PR, Ray M, Dermoudy J, Kang BH, Kim TH. Test Case Minimization and Prioritization Using CMIMX Technique. In: Ślęzak D, Kim TH, Kiumi A, Jiang T, Verner J, Abrahão S, editors. Advances in Software Engineering: International Conference on Advanced Software Engineering and Its Applications, ASEA 2009 Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2009, Jeju Island, Korea, December 10-12, 2009. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics.

Blog post
Luntz S. Rising Temperatures Lead To A Higher Proportion Of Girls Being Born Than Boys. IFLScience 2014. [accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Treasury Needs to Strengthen Its Investment Board Operations and Oversight. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hayes MG. A qualitative case study of cultural competency among Advanced Placement teachers in Florida. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Russians Treat Chechen Children To a Summer Vacation From War. New York Times 2001: A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics
AbbreviationEarthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn.
ISSN (online)1096-9845
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles