How to format your references using the Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garber K. Genetics: Deep exploration. Nature 2012; 492(7429): S56-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Maslin MA, Burns SJ. Reconstruction of the Amazon Basin effective moisture availability over the past 14,000 years. Science (New York, NY) 2000; 290(5500): 2285–2287.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schön JH, Kloc C, Batlogg B. High-temperature superconductivity in lattice-expanded C60. Science (New York, NY) 2001; 293(5539): 2432–2434.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shanahan TM, Overpeck JT, Anchukaitis KJ, Beck JW, Cole JE, Dettman DL, et al. Atlantic forcing of persistent drought in West Africa. Science (New York, NY) 2009; 324(5925): 377–380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ludders JW, McMillan M. Errors in Veterinary Anesthesia. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Yang Y, Ma M, editors. Green Communications and Networks: Proceedings of the International Conference on Green Communications and Networks (GCN 2011). vol. 113. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Hulbert GM, Ma ZD, Wang J. Gluing for Dynamic Simulation of Distributed Mechanical Systems. In: Ambrósio JAC, editor. Advances in Computational Multibody Systems, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics.

Blog post
Luntz S. Pesticides Are Killing Far More Than Bees, Study Claims. IFLScience 2014. [accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FTS 2001 Implementation Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Payne LG. The experience of caring for women with drug or alcohol problems in the general hospital. Doctoral dissertation. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Nechepurenko I. Kremlin Group Viewed As a Propaganda Mill. New York Times 2017: A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleEarthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics
AbbreviationEarthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn.
ISSN (online)1096-9845
ScopeEarth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

Other styles