How to format your references using the Earth's Future citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth's Future. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Myers, S. (2003). Forensics offers career opportunities for the Sherlock Holmes of the future--and the work is far from elementary. Nature, 421(6925), 872–873.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hawthorne, D. J., & Via, S. (2001). Genetic linkage of ecological specialization and reproductive isolation in pea aphids. Nature, 412(6850), 904–907.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hartl, F. U., Bracher, A., & Hayer-Hartl, M. (2011). Molecular chaperones in protein folding and proteostasis. Nature, 475(7356), 324–332.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Religa, T. L., Markson, J. S., Mayor, U., Freund, S. M. V., & Fersht, A. R. (2005). Solution structure of a protein denatured state and folding intermediate. Nature, 437(7061), 1053–1056.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ippolito, L. J., Jr. (2008). Satellite Communications Systems Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Shi, P. (Ed.). (2016). Natural Disasters in China. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Yu, S., Chen, H., Böhm, C., & Allgöwer, F. (2009). Enlarging the Terminal Region of NMPC with Parameter-Dependent Terminal Control Law. In L. Magni, D. M. Raimondo, & F. Allgöwer (Eds.), Nonlinear Model Predictive Control: Towards New Challenging Applications (pp. 69–78). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth's Future.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 7). Why Brontosaurus Is No Longer A Dirty Word For Dinosaur Hunters. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1991). Aviation Safety: Changes Needed in FAA’s Service Difficulty Reporting Program (No. RCED-91-24). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wong, A. N. (2013). The model minority at risk: Barriers to mental health access for Chinese Americans (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B. (2017, July 6). As Players Pull Out, Criticism Floods In. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Myers, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hawthorne & Via, 2001; Myers, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hawthorne & Via, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Religa et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth's Future
AbbreviationEarths Future
ISSN (online)2328-4277

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