How to format your references using the Earth's Future citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth's Future. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sinclair, D. A. (2003). Cell biology. An age of instability. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5641), 1859–1860.
A journal article with 2 authors
Santos, M. E., & Salzburger, W. (2012). Evolution. How cichlids diversify. Science (New York, N.Y.), 338(6107), 619–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thorne, S. H., Negrin, R. S., & Contag, C. H. (2006). Synergistic antitumor effects of immune cell-viral biotherapy. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5768), 1780–1784.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rhee, I., Jair, K. W., Yen, R. W., Lengauer, C., Herman, J. G., Kinzler, K. W., et al. (2000). CpG methylation is maintained in human cancer cells lacking DNMT1. Nature, 404(6781), 1003–1007.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lee, M., & Bieker, G. (2009). Mastering. Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Shigemura, J., & Chhem, R. K. (Eds.). (2016). Mental Health and Social Issues Following a Nuclear Accident: The Case of Fukushima. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
van Bunge, W. (2013). Dutch Cartesian Empiricism and the Advent of Newtonianism. In M. Dobre & T. Nyden (Eds.), Cartesian Empiricisms (pp. 89–104). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth's Future.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, August 15). Sharks Keep Attacking Google’s Deep-Ocean Internet Cables. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). District of Columbia: Weaknesses in Personnel Records and Public Schools’ Management Information and Controls (No. T-AIMD-95-170). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malherek, M. N. (2016). The Prevalence and Predictors of Parental Corporal Punishment in the United States (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W. (2015, August 30). In a Venezuelan Town, a State of Emergency Is Barely Perceptible. New York Times, p. A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sinclair, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Santos & Salzburger, 2012; Sinclair, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Santos & Salzburger, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Rhee et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth's Future
AbbreviationEarths Future
ISSN (online)2328-4277

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