How to format your references using the Earth's Future citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Earth's Future. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sánchez-Lavega, A. (2005). How long is the day on Saturn? Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5713), 1223–1224.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petcherski, A. G., & Kimble, J. (2000). LAG-3 is a putative transcriptional activator in the C. elegans Notch pathway. Nature, 405(6784), 364–368.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, J., Ewing, R. C., & Becker, U. (2014). Average structure and local configuration of excess oxygen in UO(2+x). Scientific Reports, 4, 4216.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Taubner, T., Korobkin, D., Urzhumov, Y., Shvets, G., & Hillenbrand, R. (2006). Near-field microscopy through a SiC superlens. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5793), 1595.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kölle, W. (2009). Wasseranalysen - richtig beurteilt. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Neuzil, J., Pervaiz, S., & Fulda, S. (Eds.). (2014). Mitochondria: The Anti- cancer Target for the Third Millennium. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Buchholz, T. A., Madary, D. A., Bork, D., & Younos, T. (2016). Stream Restoration in Urban Environments: Concept, Design Principles, and Case Studies of Stream Daylighting. In T. Younos & T. E. Parece (Eds.), Sustainable Water Management in Urban Environments (pp. 121–165). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Earth's Future.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2013, October 1). Using the Power of Evolution to Treat Cancer. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2014). Traffic Safety: Alcohol Ignition Interlocks Are Effective While Installed; Less Is Known about How to Increase Installation Rates (No. GAO-14-559). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dimick, E. (2015). A Comparative Study on Pheromone Communication between Schizophyllum species (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B. (2017, March 30). Streaming Drives Up Music Sales in U.S., but Hold the Celebrations. New York Times, p. B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sánchez-Lavega, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Petcherski & Kimble, 2000; Sánchez-Lavega, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petcherski & Kimble, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Taubner et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleEarth's Future
AbbreviationEarths Future
ISSN (online)2328-4277

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