How to format your references using the Drugs in R&D citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drugs in R&D. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cyranoski D. Will creativity thrive in an island paradise? Nature. 2004;429:220–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Warner DA, Shine R. The adaptive significance of temperature-dependent sex determination in a reptile. Nature. 2008;451:566–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gupta AK, Anderson DM, Overpeck JT. Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature. 2003;421:354–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Del Punta K, Leinders-Zufall T, Rodriguez I, Jukam D, Wysocki CJ, Ogawa S, et al. Deficient pheromone responses in mice lacking a cluster of vomeronasal receptor genes. Nature. 2002;419:70–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wootton RJ, Smith C. Reproductive Biology of Teleost Fishes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Denaro L, D’Avella D, Denaro V, editors. Pitfalls in Cervical Spine Surgery: Avoidance and Management of Complications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Perlikowski P, Yanchuk S, Wolfrum M, Stefanski A, Kapitaniak T. Dynamics of a Large Ring of Unidirectionally Coupled Duffing Oscillators. In: Wiercigroch M, Rega G, editors. IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium on Nonlinear Dynamics for Advanced Technologies and Engineering Design, held Aberdeen, UK, 27-30 July 2010. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 63–72.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drugs in R&D.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. What Happened To MH370? Prediction Markets Might Give Us The Answer [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airport and Airway Trust Fund: Declining Balance Raises Concerns over Ability to Meet Future Demands. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Feb. Report No.: GAO-11-358T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bennett JL. An examination of therapeutic recreation programs for veterans with combat-related disabilities and their families [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Pendleton I. THE HIGHWAY BEAUTIFUL; Private Citizens and State Officials Cooperate to Create Natural Scenery Along Paved Roads. New York Times. 1934 Mar 25;DRAMA SCREEN MUSIC RADIO FASHIONS ARTX12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrugs in R&D
AbbreviationDrugs R. D.
ISSN (print)1174-5886
ISSN (online)1179-6901

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