How to format your references using the Drugs & Therapy Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drugs & Therapy Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kappe CO. Journal club. A chemist muses on the technique of microwaving flowing chemical reactions. Nature. 2010;464:817.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shin DS, Tainer JA. Molecular biology: DNA repair without flipping out. Nature. 2015;527:168–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pendry JB, Martín-Moreno L, Garcia-Vidal FJ. Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces. Science. 2004;305:847–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bailes M, Bates SD, Bhalerao V, Bhat NDR, Burgay M, Burke-Spolaor S, et al. Transformation of a star into a planet in a millisecond pulsar binary. Science. 2011;333:1717–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hahn GJ, Doganaksoy N. A Career in Statistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Campilho A, Kamel M, editors. Image Analysis and Recognition: Third International Conference, ICIAR 2006, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, September 18-20, 2006, Proceedings, Part II. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Jambor A, Babu S. Who Feeds the World?: Global Agricultural Trade Patterns. In: Babu S, editor. Competitiveness of Global Agriculture: Policy Lessons for Food Security. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 47–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drugs & Therapy Perspectives.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. The Milky Way’s Halo Spins With The Galaxy [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Pollution: FAA’s Reliance on Manufacturers for Jet Engine Emission Testing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Jul. Report No.: RCED-94-99.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Mazyck BS. Leadership behavior and teacher attrition: A qualitative phenomenological inquiry of job satisfaction [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Maya Plisetskaya, Fluid Soviet Ballerina, Dies at 89. New York Times. 2015 May 4;A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrugs & Therapy Perspectives
AbbreviationDrugs Ther. Perspect.
ISSN (print)1172-0360
ISSN (online)1179-1977
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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