How to format your references using the Drugs & Therapy Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drugs & Therapy Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wilkinson DM. At cross purposes. Nature. 2001;412:485.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cullimore J, Dénarié J. Plant sciences. How legumes select their sweet talking symbionts. Science. 2003;302:575–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Dekas AE, Poretsky RS, Orphan VJ. Deep-sea archaea fix and share nitrogen in methane-consuming microbial consortia. Science. 2009;326:422–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Díaz C, Pijper E, Olsen RA, Busnengo HF, Auerbach DJ, Kroes GJ. Chemically accurate simulation of a prototypical surface reaction: H2 dissociation on Cu(111). Science. 2009;326:832–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ippolito LJ Jr. Satellite Communications Systems Engineering. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Gramelsberger G, Feichter J, editors. Climate Change and Policy: The Calculability of Climate Change and the Challenge of Uncertainty. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Moreno-García A. Debridement, Joint Lavage and Cartilage Shaving. In: Rodrìguez-Merchán EC, editor. Articular Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Diagnosis and Treatment. Milano: Springer; 2012. p. 43–6.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drugs & Therapy Perspectives.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Nigeria Celebrates One Year Without Polio Case [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Better Targeting Its Oversight, but Needs to Assess the Impact of Its Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Jan. Report No.: GAO-07-390T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Prima MB. Waiting for Lefty: Adversity and the American Dream [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Koblin J. ‘Stranger Things’ Will Return in 2017. New York Times. 2016 Aug 31;C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrugs & Therapy Perspectives
AbbreviationDrugs Ther. Perspect.
ISSN (print)1172-0360
ISSN (online)1179-1977
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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