How to format your references using the Drugs & Aging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drugs & Aging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brown GE Jr. Surface science. How minerals react with water. Science. 2001;294:67–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Benilova I, De Strooper B. Neuroscience. Promiscuous Alzheimer’s amyloid: yet another partner. Science. 2013;341:1354–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Poss KD, Wilson LG, Keating MT. Heart regeneration in zebrafish. Science. 2002;298:2188–90.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Fricke H, Hissmann K, Schauer J, Erdmann M, Moosa MK, Plante R. Biogeography of the Indonesian coelacanths. Nature. 2000;403:38.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Shelton T. Business Models for the Social Mobile Cloud. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Khoury R. Numerical Methods and Modelling for Engineering. Harder DW, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sugiana K. Problems and Prospects for Sustainable Regeneration of Traditional Markets in Yogyakarta City. In: Kidokoro T, Harata N, Subanu LP, Jessen J, Motte A, Seltzer EP, editors. Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2008. p. 61–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drugs & Aging.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Having Sex Helps Us Become Immune To Diseases [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Estimates of Potential Savings by Retiring Two Aircraft Carriers Early. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Mar. Report No.: T-NSIAD-88-16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Einziger H. Incidence Hopf algebras: Antipodes, forest formulas, and noncrossing partitions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shpigel B. Red Sox Muster a Threat After Porcello Stumbles, but the Indians Hold On. New York Times. 2016 Oct 7;B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrugs & Aging
AbbreviationDrugs Aging
ISSN (print)1170-229X
ISSN (online)1179-1969
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Pharmacology (medical)

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