How to format your references using the Drugs & Aging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drugs & Aging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Piston DW. Research tools: Understand how it works. Nature. 2012;484:440–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Grasset EK, Cerutti A. Immunology. Retroviral help for B cells. Science. 2014;346:1454–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Shepherd DS, Claussen MJ, Kurtz SE. Evidence for a solar system-size accretion disk around the massive protostar G192.16-3.82. Science. 2001;292:1513–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Mosher RA, Melnyk CW, Kelly KA, Dunn RM, Studholme DJ, Baulcombe DC. Uniparental expression of PolIV-dependent siRNAs in developing endosperm of Arabidopsis. Nature. 2009;460:283–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Nasr VG, DiNardo JA. The Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Handbook. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
1. Chiba S, Tanter É, Ernst E, Hirschfeld R, editors. Transactions on Aspect-Oriented Software Development XII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hulley H. The Economic Plausibility of Strict Local Martingales in Financial Modelling. In: Chiarella C, Novikov A, editors. Contemporary Quantitative Finance: Essays in Honour of Eckhard Platen. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 53–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drugs & Aging.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Here’s How Much Radiation You’re Exposed To Every Single Day [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Potential Impact of Exemptions From Transportation Control Measures. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Apr. Report No.: RCED-93-125.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Donihoo K. Best Practices and Strategies Used by Church Leaders to Mitigate and Prevent Burnout Among Church Volunteers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Malibu, CA]: Pepperdine University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD. New York Times. 1995 Jan 8;139.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrugs & Aging
AbbreviationDrugs Aging
ISSN (print)1170-229X
ISSN (online)1179-1969
ScopeGeriatrics and Gerontology
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles